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  <title>C++/Tree Mapping Getting Started Guide</title>

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  <div id="titlepage">
    <div class="title" id="first-title">C++/Tree Mapping</div>
    <div class="title" id="second-title">Getting Started Guide</div>

  <p>Copyright &copy; 2005-2017 CODE SYNTHESIS TOOLS CC</p>

  <p>Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/licenses/fdl-1.2.txt">GNU Free
     Documentation License, version 1.2</a>; with no Invariant Sections,
     no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts.
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     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/guide/index.xhtml">XHTML</a>,
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/guide/cxx-tree-guide.pdf">PDF</a>, and
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/guide/cxx-tree-guide.ps">PostScript</a>.</p>

  </div>

  <h1>Table of Contents</h1>

  <table class="toc">
    <tr>
      <th></th><td><a href="#0">Preface</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th></th><td><a href="#0.1">About This Document</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th></th><td><a href="#0.2">More Information</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>1</th><td><a href="#1">Introduction</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>1.1</th><td><a href="#1.1">Mapping Overview</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>1.2</th><td><a href="#1.2">Benefits</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>2</th><td><a href="#2">Hello World Example</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>2.1</th><td><a href="#2.1">Writing XML Document and Schema</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>2.2</th><td><a href="#2.2">Translating Schema to C++</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>2.3</th><td><a href="#2.3">Implementing Application Logic</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>2.4</th><td><a href="#2.4">Compiling and Running</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>2.5</th><td><a href="#2.5">Adding Serialization</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>2.6</th><td><a href="#2.6">Selecting Naming Convention</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>2.7</th><td><a href="#2.7">Generating Documentation</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>3</th><td><a href="#3">Overall Mapping Configuration</a>
        <table class="toc">
	  <tr><th>3.1</th><td><a href="#3.1">C++ Standard</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>3.2</th><td><a href="#3.2">Character Type and Encoding</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>3.3</th><td><a href="#3.3">Support for Polymorphism </a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>3.4</th><td><a href="#3.4">Namespace Mapping</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>3.5</th><td><a href="#3.5">Thread Safety</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>4</th><td><a href="#4">Working with Object Models</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>4.1</th><td><a href="#4.1">Attribute and Element Cardinalities</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>4.2</th><td><a href="#4.2">Accessing the Object Model</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>4.3</th><td><a href="#4.3">Modifying the Object Model</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>4.4</th><td><a href="#4.4">Creating the Object Model from Scratch</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>4.5</th><td><a href="#4.5">Mapping for the Built-in XML Schema Types</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>5</th><td><a href="#5">Parsing</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>5.1</th><td><a href="#5.1">XML Schema Validation and Searching</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>5.2</th><td><a href="#5.2">Error Handling</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>6</th><td><a href="#6">Serialization</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>6.1</th><td><a href="#6.1">Namespace and Schema Information</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>6.2</th><td><a href="#6.2">Error Handling</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

  </table>
  </div>

  <h1><a name="0">Preface</a></h1>

  <h2><a name="0.1">About This Document</a></h2>

  <p>The goal of this document is to provide you with an understanding of
     the C++/Tree programming model and allow you to efficiently evaluate
     XSD against your project's technical requirements. As such, this
     document is intended for C++ developers and software architects
     who are looking for an XML processing solution. For a more in-depth
     description of the C++/Tree mapping refer to the
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/">C++/Tree
     Mapping User Manual</a>.</p>

  <p>Prior experience with XML and C++ is required to understand this
     document. Basic understanding of XML Schema is advantageous but
     not expected or required.
  </p>


  <h2><a name="0.2">More Information</a></h2>

  <p>Beyond this guide, you may also find the following sources of
     information useful:</p>

  <ul class="list">
    <li><a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/">C++/Tree
        Mapping User Manual</a></li>

    <li><a href="http://wiki.codesynthesis.com/Tree/Customization_guide">C++/Tree
        Mapping Customization Guide</a></li>

    <li><a href="http://wiki.codesynthesis.com/Tree/FAQ">C++/Tree
        Mapping Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)</a></li>

    <li><a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
        Compiler Command Line Manual</a></li>

    <li>The <code>examples/cxx/tree/</code> directory in the XSD
        distribution contains a collection of examples and a README
        file with an overview of each example.</li>

    <li>The <code>README</code> file in the XSD distribution explains
        how to compile the examples on various platforms.</li>

    <li>The <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/mailman/listinfo/xsd-users">xsd-users</a>
        mailing list is the place to ask technical questions about XSD and the C++/Parser mapping.
        Furthermore, the <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/pipermail/xsd-users/">archives</a>
        may already have answers to some of your questions.</li>
  </ul>

  <!-- Introduction -->

  <h1><a name="1">1 Introduction</a></h1>

  <p>Welcome to CodeSynthesis XSD and the C++/Tree mapping. XSD is a
     cross-platform W3C XML Schema to C++ data binding compiler. C++/Tree
     is a W3C XML Schema to C++ mapping that represents the data stored
     in XML as a statically-typed, vocabulary-specific object model.
  </p>

  <h2><a name="1.1">1.1 Mapping Overview</a></h2>

  <p>Based on a formal description of an XML vocabulary (schema), the
     C++/Tree mapping produces a tree-like data structure suitable for
     in-memory processing. The core of the mapping consists of C++
     classes that constitute the object model and are derived from
     types defined in XML Schema as well as XML parsing and
     serialization code.</p>

  <p>Besides the core features, C++/Tree provide a number of additional
     mapping elements that can be useful in some applications. These
     include serialization and extraction to/from formats others than
     XML, such as unstructured text (useful for debugging) and binary
     representations such as XDR and CDR for high-speed data processing
     as well as automatic documentation generation. The C++/Tree mapping
     also provides a wide range of mechanisms for controlling and
     customizing the generated code.</p>

  <p>A typical application that uses C++/Tree for XML processing usually
     performs the following three steps: it first reads (parses) an XML
     document to an in-memory object model, it then performs some useful
     computations on that object model which may involve modification
     of the model, and finally it may write (serialize) the modified
     object model back to XML.</p>

  <p>The next chapter presents a simple application that performs these
     three steps. The following chapters show how to use the C++/Tree
     mapping in more detail.</p>

  <h2><a name="1.2">1.2 Benefits</a></h2>

  <p>Traditional XML access APIs such as Document Object Model (DOM)
     or Simple API for XML (SAX) have a number of drawbacks that
     make them less suitable for creating robust and maintainable
     XML processing applications. These drawbacks include:
  </p>

  <ul class="list">
    <li>Generic representation of XML in terms of elements, attributes,
        and text forces an application developer to write a substantial
        amount of bridging code that identifies and transforms pieces
        of information encoded in XML to a representation more suitable
        for consumption by the application logic.</li>

    <li>String-based flow control defers error detection to runtime.
        It also reduces code readability and maintainability.</li>

    <li>Lack of type safety because the data is represented as text.</li>

    <li>Resulting applications are hard to debug, change, and
        maintain.</li>
  </ul>

  <p>In contrast, statically-typed, vocabulary-specific object model
     produced by the C++/Tree mapping allows you to operate in your
     domain terms instead of the generic elements, attributes, and
     text. Static typing helps catch errors at compile-time rather
     than at run-time. Automatic code generation frees you for more
     interesting tasks (such as doing something useful with the
     information stored in the XML documents) and minimizes the
     effort needed to adapt your applications to changes in the
     document structure. To summarize, the C++/Tree object model has
     the following key advantages over generic XML access APIs:</p>

  <ul class="list">
    <li><b>Ease of use.</b> The generated code hides all the complexity
        associated with parsing and serializing XML. This includes navigating
        the structure and converting between the text representation and
        data types suitable for manipulation by the application
        logic.</li>

    <li><b>Natural representation.</b> The object representation allows
         you to access the XML data using your domain vocabulary instead
         of generic elements, attributes, and text.</li>

    <li><b>Concise code.</b> With the object representation the
        application implementation is simpler and thus easier
        to read and understand.</li>

    <li><b>Safety.</b> The generated object model is statically
        typed and uses functions instead of strings to access the
        information. This helps catch programming errors at compile-time
        rather than at runtime.</li>

    <li><b>Maintainability.</b> Automatic code generation minimizes the
        effort needed to adapt the application to changes in the
        document structure. With static typing, the C++ compiler
        can pin-point the places in the client code that need to be
        changed.</li>

    <li><b>Compatibility.</b> Sequences of elements are represented in
        the object model as containers conforming to the standard C++
        sequence requirements. This makes it possible to use standard
        C++ algorithms on the object representation and frees you from
        learning yet another container interface, as is the case with
        DOM.</li>

    <li><b>Efficiency.</b> If the application makes repetitive use
        of the data extracted from XML, then the C++/Tree object model
        is more efficient because the navigation is performed using
        function calls rather than string comparisons and the XML
        data is extracted only once. Furthermore, the runtime memory
        usage is reduced due to more efficient data storage
        (for instance, storing numeric data as integers instead of
        strings) as well as the static knowledge of cardinality
        constraints.</li>
  </ul>


  <!-- Hello World Parser -->


  <h1><a name="2">2 Hello World Example</a></h1>

  <p>In this chapter we will examine how to parse, access, modify, and
     serialize a very simple XML document using the XSD-generated
     C++/Tree object model. The code presented in this chapter is
     based on the <code>hello</code> example which can be found in
     the <code>examples/cxx/tree/</code> directory of the XSD
     distribution.</p>

  <h2><a name="2.1">2.1 Writing XML Document and Schema</a></h2>

  <p>First, we need to get an idea about the structure
     of the XML documents we are going to process. Our
     <code>hello.xml</code>, for example, could look like this:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;hello>

  &lt;greeting>Hello&lt;/greeting>

  &lt;name>sun&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>moon&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>world&lt;/name>

&lt;/hello>
  </pre>

  <p>Then we can write a description of the above XML in the
     XML Schema language and save it into <code>hello.xsd</code>:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

  &lt;xs:complexType name="hello_t">
    &lt;xs:sequence>
      &lt;xs:element name="greeting" type="xs:string"/>
      &lt;xs:element name="name" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    &lt;/xs:sequence>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:element name="hello" type="hello_t"/>

&lt;/xs:schema>
  </pre>

  <p>Even if you are not familiar with XML Schema, it
     should be easy to connect declarations in <code>hello.xsd</code>
     to elements in <code>hello.xml</code>. The <code>hello_t</code> type
     is defined as a sequence of the nested <code>greeting</code> and
     <code>name</code> elements. Note that the term sequence in XML
     Schema means that elements should appear in a particular order
     as opposed to appearing multiple times. The <code>name</code>
     element has its <code>maxOccurs</code> property set to
     <code>unbounded</code> which means it can appear multiple times
     in an XML document. Finally, the globally-defined <code>hello</code>
     element prescribes the root element for our vocabulary. For an
     easily-approachable introduction to XML Schema refer to
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/">XML Schema Part 0:
     Primer</a>.</p>

  <p>The above schema is a specification of our XML vocabulary; it tells
     everybody what valid documents of our XML-based language should look
     like. We can also update our <code>hello.xml</code> to include the
     information about the schema so that XML parsers can validate
     our document:</p>

      <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;hello xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="hello.xsd">

  &lt;greeting>Hello&lt;/greeting>

  &lt;name>sun&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>moon&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>world&lt;/name>

&lt;/hello>
      </pre>


  <p>The next step is to compile the schema to generate the object
     model and parsing functions.</p>

  <h2><a name="2.2">2.2 Translating Schema to C++</a></h2>

  <p>Now we are ready to translate our <code>hello.xsd</code> to C++.
     To do this we invoke the XSD compiler from a terminal (UNIX) or
     a command prompt (Windows):
  </p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ xsd cxx-tree hello.xsd
  </pre>

  <p>The XSD compiler produces two C++ files: <code>hello.hxx</code> and
     <code>hello.cxx</code>. The following code fragment is taken from
     <code>hello.hxx</code>; it should give you an idea about what gets
     generated:
  </p>

  <pre class="c++">
class hello_t
{
public:
  // greeting
  //
  typedef xml_schema::string greeting_type;

  const greeting_type&amp;
  greeting () const;

  greeting_type&amp;
  greeting ();

  void
  greeting (const greeting_type&amp; x);

  // name
  //
  typedef xml_schema::string name_type;
  typedef xsd::sequence&lt;name_type> name_sequence;
  typedef name_sequence::iterator name_iterator;
  typedef name_sequence::const_iterator name_const_iterator;

  const name_sequence&amp;
  name () const;

  name_sequence&amp;
  name ();

  void
  name (const name_sequence&amp; s);

  // Constructor.
  //
  hello_t (const greeting_type&amp;);

  ...

};

std::auto_ptr&lt;hello_t>
hello (const std::string&amp; uri);

std::auto_ptr&lt;hello_t>
hello (std::istream&amp;);
  </pre>

  <p>The <code>hello_t</code> C++ class corresponds to the
     <code>hello_t</code> XML Schema type. For each element
     in this type a set of C++ type definitions as well as
     accessor and modifier functions are generated inside the
     <code>hello_t</code> class. Note that the type definitions
     and member functions for the <code>greeting</code> and
     <code>name</code> elements are different because of the
     cardinality differences between these two elements
     (<code>greeting</code> is a required single element and
     <code>name</code> is a sequence of elements).</p>

  <p>The <code>xml_schema::string</code> type used in the type
     definitions is a C++ class provided by the XSD runtime
     that corresponds to built-in XML Schema type
     <code>string</code>. The <code>xml_schema::string</code>
     is based on <code>std::string</code> and can be used as
     such. Similarly, the <code>sequence</code> class template
     that is used in the <code>name_sequence</code> type
     definition is based on and has the same interface as
     <code>std::vector</code>. The mapping between the built-in
     XML Schema types and C++ types is described in more detail in
     <a href="#4.5">Section 4.5, "Mapping for the Built-in XML Schema
     Types"</a>. The <code>hello_t</code> class also includes a
     constructor with an initializer for the required
     <code>greeting</code> element as its argument.</p>

  <p>The <code>hello</code> overloaded global functions correspond
     to the <code>hello</code> global element in XML Schema. A
     global element in XML Schema is a valid document root.
     By default XSD generated a set of parsing functions for each
     global element defined in XML Schema (this can be overridden
     with the <code>--root-element-*</code> options). Parsing
     functions return a dynamically allocated object model as an
     automatic pointer. The actual pointer used depends on the
     C++ standard selected. For C++98 it is <code>std::auto_ptr</code>
     as shown above. For C++11 it is <code>std::unique_ptr</code>.
     For example, if we modify our XSD compiler invocation to
     select C++11:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ xsd cxx-tree --std c++11 hello.xsd
  </pre>

  <p>Then the parsing function signatures will become:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
std::unique_ptr&lt;hello_t>
hello (const std::string&amp; uri);

std::unique_ptr&lt;hello_t>
hello (std::istream&amp;);
  </pre>

  <p>For more information on parsing functions see <a href="#5">Chapter 5,
     "Parsing"</a>.</p>

  <h2><a name="2.3">2.3 Implementing Application Logic</a></h2>

  <p>At this point we have all the parts we need to do something useful
     with the information stored in our XML document:
  </p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;iostream>
#include "hello.hxx"

using namespace std;

int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  try
  {
    auto_ptr&lt;hello_t> h (hello (argv[1]));

    for (hello_t::name_const_iterator i (h->name ().begin ());
         i != h->name ().end ();
         ++i)
    {
      cerr &lt;&lt; h->greeting () &lt;&lt; ", " &lt;&lt; *i &lt;&lt; "!" &lt;&lt; endl;
    }
  }
  catch (const xml_schema::exception&amp; e)
  {
    cerr &lt;&lt; e &lt;&lt; endl;
    return 1;
  }
}
  </pre>

  <p>The first part of our application calls one of the parsing
     functions to parser an XML file specified in the command line.
     We then use the returned object model to iterate over names
     and print a greeting line for each of them. Finally, we
     catch and print the <code>xml_schema::exception</code>
     exception in case something goes wrong. This exception
     is the root of the exception hierarchy used by the
     XSD-generated code.
  </p>


  <h2><a name="2.4">2.4 Compiling and Running</a></h2>

  <p>After saving our application from the previous section in
     <code>driver.cxx</code>, we are ready to compile our first
     program and run it on the test XML document. On a UNIX
     system this can be done with the following commands:
  </p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ c++ -I.../libxsd -c driver.cxx hello.cxx
$ c++ -o driver driver.o hello.o -lxerces-c
$ ./driver hello.xml
Hello, sun!
Hello, moon!
Hello, world!
  </pre>

  <p>Here <code>.../libxsd</code> represents the path to the
     <code>libxsd</code> directory in the XSD distribution.
     Note also that we are required to link our application
     with the Xerces-C++ library because the generated code
     uses it as the underlying XML parser.</p>

  <h2><a name="2.5">2.5 Adding Serialization</a></h2>

  <p>While parsing and accessing the XML data may be everything
     you need, there are applications that require creating new
     or modifying existing XML documents. By default XSD does
     not produce serialization code. We will need to request
     it with the <code>--generate-serialization</code> options:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ xsd cxx-tree --generate-serialization hello.xsd
  </pre>

  <p>If we now examine the generated <code>hello.hxx</code> file,
     we will find a set of overloaded serialization functions,
     including the following version:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
void
hello (std::ostream&amp;,
       const hello_t&amp;,
       const xml_schema::namespace_infomap&amp; =
         xml_schema::namespace_infomap ());

  </pre>

  <p>Just like with parsing functions, XSD generates serialization
     functions for each global element unless instructed otherwise
     with one of the <code>--root-element-*</code> options. For more
     information on serialization functions see <a href="#6">Chapter 6,
     "Serialization"</a>.</p>

  <p>We first examine an application that modifies an existing
     object model and serializes it back to XML:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;iostream>
#include "hello.hxx"

using namespace std;

int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  try
  {
    auto_ptr&lt;hello_t> h (hello (argv[1]));

    // Change the greeting phrase.
    //
    h->greeting ("Hi");

    // Add another entry to the name sequence.
    //
    h->name ().push_back ("mars");

    // Serialize the modified object model to XML.
    //
    xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
    map[""].name = "";
    map[""].schema = "hello.xsd";

    hello (cout, *h, map);
  }
  catch (const xml_schema::exception&amp; e)
  {
    cerr &lt;&lt; e &lt;&lt; endl;
    return 1;
  }
}
  </pre>

  <p>First, our application parses an XML document and obtains its
     object model as in the previous example. Then it changes the
     greeting string and adds another entry to the list of names.
     Finally, it serializes the object model back to XML by calling
     the serialization function.</p>

  <p>The first argument we pass to the serialization function is
     <code>cout</code> which results in the XML being written to
     the standard output for us to inspect. We could have also
     written the result to a file or memory buffer by creating an
     instance of <code>std::ofstream</code> or <code>std::ostringstream</code>
     and passing it instead of <code>cout</code>. The second argument is the
     object model we want to serialize. The final argument is an optional
     namespace information map for our vocabulary. It captures information
     such as namespaces, namespace prefixes to which they should be mapped,
     and schemas associated with these namespaces. If we don't provide
     this argument then generic namespace prefixes (<code>p1</code>,
     <code>p2</code>, etc.) will be automatically assigned to XML namespaces
     and no schema information will be added to the resulting document
     (see <a href="#6">Chapter 6, "Serialization"</a> for details).
     In our case, the prefix (map key) and namespace name are empty
     because our vocabulary does not use XML namespaces.</p>

  <p>If we now compile and run this application we will see the
     output as shown in the following listing:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;hello xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="hello.xsd">

  &lt;greeting>Hi&lt;/greeting>

  &lt;name>sun&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>moon&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>world&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>mars&lt;/name>

&lt;/hello>
  </pre>

  <p>We can also create and serialize an object model from scratch
     as shown in the following example:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;iostream>
#include &lt;fstream>
#include "hello.hxx"

using namespace std;

int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  try
  {
    hello_t h ("Hi");

    hello_t::name_sequence&amp; ns (h.name ());

    ns.push_back ("Jane");
    ns.push_back ("John");

    // Serialize the object model to XML.
    //
    xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
    map[""].name = "";
    map[""].schema = "hello.xsd";

    std::ofstream ofs (argv[1]);
    hello (ofs, h, map);
  }
  catch (const xml_schema::exception&amp; e)
  {
    cerr &lt;&lt; e &lt;&lt; endl;
    return 1;
  }
}
  </pre>

  <p>In this example we used the generated constructor to create
     an instance of type <code>hello_t</code>. To reduce typing,
     we obtained a reference to the name sequence which we then
     used to add a few names. The serialization part is identical
     to the previous example except this time we are writing to
     a file. If we compile and run this program, it produces the
     following XML file:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;hello xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
       xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="hello.xsd">

  &lt;greeting>Hi&lt;/greeting>

  &lt;name>Jane&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>John&lt;/name>

&lt;/hello>
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="2.6">2.6 Selecting Naming Convention</a></h2>

  <p>By default XSD uses the so-called K&amp;R (Kernighan and Ritchie)
     identifier naming convention in the generated code. In this
     convention both type and function names are in lower case and
     words are separated by underscores. If your application code or
     schemas use a different notation, you may want to change the
     naming convention used in the generated code for consistency.
     XSD supports a set of widely-used naming conventions
     that you can select with the <code>--type-naming</code> and
     <code>--function-naming</code> options. You can also further
     refine one of the predefined conventions or create a completely
     custom naming scheme by using the  <code>--*-regex</code> options.</p>

  <p>As an example, let's assume that our "Hello World" application
     uses the so-called upper-camel-case naming convention for types
     (that is, each word in a type name is capitalized) and the K&amp;R
     convention for function names. Since K&amp;R is the default
     convention for both type and function names, we only need to
     change the type naming scheme:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ xsd cxx-tree --type-naming ucc hello.xsd
  </pre>

  <p>The <code>ucc</code> argument to the <code>--type-naming</code>
     options stands for upper-camel-case. If we now examine the
     generated <code>hello.hxx</code>, we will see the following
     changes compared to the declarations shown in the previous
     sections:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class Hello_t
{
public:
  // greeting
  //
  typedef xml_schema::String GreetingType;

  const GreetingType&amp;
  greeting () const;

  GreetingType&amp;
  greeting ();

  void
  greeting (const GreetingType&amp; x);

  // name
  //
  typedef xml_schema::String NameType;
  typedef xsd::sequence&lt;NameType> NameSequence;
  typedef NameSequence::iterator NameIterator;
  typedef NameSequence::const_iterator NameConstIterator;

  const NameSequence&amp;
  name () const;

  NameSequence&amp;
  name ();

  void
  name (const NameSequence&amp; s);

  // Constructor.
  //
  Hello_t (const GreetingType&amp;);

  ...

};

std::auto_ptr&lt;Hello_t>
hello (const std::string&amp; uri);

std::auto_ptr&lt;Hello_t>
hello (std::istream&amp;);
  </pre>

  <p>Notice that the type names in the <code>xml_schema</code> namespace,
     for example <code>xml_schema::String</code>, now also use the
     upper-camel-case naming convention. The only thing that we may
     be unhappy about in the above code is the <code>_t</code>
     suffix in <code>Hello_t</code>. If we are not in a position
     to change the schema, we can <em>touch-up</em> the <code>ucc</code>
     convention with a custom translation rule using the
     <code>--type-regex</code> option:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ xsd cxx-tree --type-naming ucc --type-regex '/ (.+)_t/\u$1/' hello.xsd
  </pre>

  <p>This results in the following changes to the generated code:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class Hello
{
public:
  // greeting
  //
  typedef xml_schema::String GreetingType;

  const GreetingType&amp;
  greeting () const;

  GreetingType&amp;
  greeting ();

  void
  greeting (const GreetingType&amp; x);

  // name
  //
  typedef xml_schema::String NameType;
  typedef xsd::sequence&lt;NameType> NameSequence;
  typedef NameSequence::iterator NameIterator;
  typedef NameSequence::const_iterator NameConstIterator;

  const NameSequence&amp;
  name () const;

  NameSequence&amp;
  name ();

  void
  name (const NameSequence&amp; s);

  // Constructor.
  //
  Hello (const GreetingType&amp;);

  ...

};

std::auto_ptr&lt;Hello>
hello (const std::string&amp; uri);

std::auto_ptr&lt;Hello>
hello (std::istream&amp;);
  </pre>

  <p>For more detailed information on the <code>--type-naming</code>,
     <code>--function-naming</code>, <code>--type-regex</code>, and
     other <code>--*-regex</code> options refer to the NAMING
     CONVENTION section in the <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
     Compiler Command Line Manual</a>.</p>

  <h2><a name="2.7">2.7 Generating Documentation</a></h2>

  <p>While our object model is quite simple, real-world vocabularies
     can be quite complex with hundreds of types, elements, and
     attributes. For such vocabularies figuring out which types
     provide which member functions by studying the generated
     source code or schemas can be a daunting task. To provide
     application developers with a more accessible way of
     understanding the generated object models, the XSD compiler
     can be instructed to produce source code with documentation
     comments in the Doxygen format. Then the source code can be
     processed with the <a href="http://www.doxygen.org">Doxygen</a>
     documentation system to extract this information and produce
     documentation in various formats.
  </p>

  <p>In this section we will see how to generate documentation
     for our "Hello World" vocabulary. To showcase the full power
     of the XSD documentation facilities, we will first document
     our schema. The XSD compiler will then transfer
     this information from the schema to the generated code and
     then to the object model documentation. Note that the
     documentation in the schema is not required for XSD to
     generate useful documentation. Below you will find
     our <code>hello.xsd</code> with added documentation:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

  &lt;xs:complexType name="hello_t">

    &lt;xs:annotation>
      &lt;xs:documentation>
        The hello_t type consists of a greeting phrase and a
        collection of names to which this greeting applies.
      &lt;/xs:documentation>
    &lt;/xs:annotation>

    &lt;xs:sequence>

      &lt;xs:element name="greeting" type="xs:string">
        &lt;xs:annotation>
          &lt;xs:documentation>
            The greeting element contains the greeting phrase
            for this hello object.
          &lt;/xs:documentation>
        &lt;/xs:annotation>
      &lt;/xs:element>

      &lt;xs:element name="name" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded">
        &lt;xs:annotation>
          &lt;xs:documentation>
            The name elements contains names to be greeted.
          &lt;/xs:documentation>
        &lt;/xs:annotation>
      &lt;/xs:element>

    &lt;/xs:sequence>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:element name="hello" type="hello_t">
    &lt;xs:annotation>
      &lt;xs:documentation>
        The hello element is a root of the Hello XML vocabulary.
        Every conforming document should start with this element.
      &lt;/xs:documentation>
    &lt;/xs:annotation>
  &lt;/xs:element>

&lt;/xs:schema>
  </pre>

  <p>The first step in obtaining the documentation is to recompile
     our schema with the <code>--generate-doxygen</code> option:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ xsd cxx-tree --generate-serialization --generate-doxygen hello.xsd
  </pre>

  <p>Now the generated <code>hello.hxx</code> file contains comments
     in the Doxygen format. The next step is to process this file
     with the Doxygen documentation system. If your project does
     not use Doxygen then you first need to create a configuration
     file for your project:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ doxygen -g hello.doxygen
  </pre>

  <p>You only need to perform this step once. Now we can generate
     the documentation by executing the following command in the
     directory with the generated source code:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ doxygen hello.doxygen
  </pre>

  <p>While the generated documentation can be useful as is, we can
     go one step further and link (using the Doxygen tags mechanism)
     the documentation for our object model with the documentation
     for the XSD runtime library which defines C++ classes for the
     built-in XML Schema types. This way we can seamlessly browse
     between documentation for the <code>hello_t</code> class which
     is generated by the XSD compiler and the <code>xml_schema::string</code>
     class which is defined in the XSD runtime library. The Doxygen
     configuration file for the XSD runtime is provided with the XSD
     distribution.</p>

  <p>You can view the result of the steps described in this section
     on the <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/hello/html/annotated.html">Hello
     Example Documentation</a> page.</p>

  <!-- Chapater 3 -->


  <h1><a name="3">3 Overall Mapping Configuration</a></h1>

  <p>The C++/Tree mapping has a number of configuration parameters that
     determine the overall properties and behavior of the generated code.
     Configuration parameters are specified with the XSD command line
     options. This chapter describes configuration aspects that are most
     commonly encountered by application developers. These include: the
     C++ standard, the character type that is used by the generated code,
     handling of vocabularies that use XML Schema polymorphism, XML Schema
     to C++ namespace mapping, and thread safety. For more ways to configure
     the generated code refer to the
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
     Compiler Command Line Manual</a>.
  </p>

  <h2><a name="3.1">3.1 C++ Standard</a></h2>

  <p>The C++/Tree mapping provides support for ISO/IEC C++ 1998/2003 (C++98)
     and ISO/IEC C++ 2011 (C++11). To select the C++ standard for the
     generated code we use the <code>--std</code> XSD compiler command
     line option. While the majority of the examples in this guide use
     C++98, support for the new functionality and library components
     introduced in C++11 are discussed throughout the document.</p>

  <h2><a name="3.2">3.2 Character Type and Encoding</a></h2>

  <p>The C++/Tree mapping has built-in support for two character types:
    <code>char</code> and <code>wchar_t</code>. You can select the
    character type with the <code>--char-type</code> command line
    option. The default character type is <code>char</code>. The
    character type affects all string and string-based types that
    are used in the mapping. These include the string-based built-in
    XML Schema types, exception types, stream types, etc.</p>

  <p>Another aspect of the mapping that depends on the character type
     is character encoding. For the <code>char</code> character type
     the default encoding is UTF-8. Other supported encodings are
     ISO-8859-1, Xerces-C++ Local Code Page (LPC), as well as
     custom encodings. You can select which encoding should be used
     in the object model with the <code>--char-encoding</code> command
     line option.</p>

  <p>For the <code>wchar_t</code> character type the encoding is
     automatically selected between UTF-16 and UTF-32/UCS-4 depending
     on the size of the <code>wchar_t</code> type. On some platforms
     (for example, Windows with Visual C++ and AIX with IBM XL C++)
     <code>wchar_t</code> is 2 bytes long. For these platforms the
     encoding is UTF-16. On other platforms <code>wchar_t</code> is 4 bytes
     long and UTF-32/UCS-4 is used.</p>

  <p>Note also that the character encoding that is used in the object model
     is independent of the encodings used in input and output XML. In fact,
     all three (object mode, input XML, and output XML) can have different
     encodings.</p>

  <h2><a name="3.3">3.3 Support for Polymorphism</a></h2>

  <p>By default XSD generates non-polymorphic code. If your vocabulary
     uses XML Schema polymorphism in the form of <code>xsi:type</code>
     and/or substitution groups, then you will need to compile
     your schemas with the <code>--generate-polymorphic</code> option
     to produce polymorphism-aware code. For more information on
     working with polymorphic object models, refer to
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#2.11">Section 2.11,
     "Mapping for <code>xsi:type</code> and Substitution Groups"</a> in
     the C++/Tree Mapping User Manual.</p>

  <h2><a name="3.4">3.4 Namespace Mapping</a></h2>

  <p>XSD maps XML namespaces specified in the <code>targetNamespace</code>
     attribute in XML Schema to one or more nested C++ namespaces. By
     default, a namespace URI is mapped to a sequence of C++ namespace
     names by removing the protocol and host parts and splitting the
     rest into a sequence of names with <code>'/'</code> as the name
     separator.</p>

  <p>The default mapping of namespace URIs to C++ namespaces
     can be altered using the <code>--namespace-map</code> and
     <code>--namespace-regex</code> compiler options. For example,
     to map namespace URI <code>http://www.codesynthesis.com/my</code> to
     C++ namespace <code>cs::my</code>, we can use the following option:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
--namespace-map http://www.codesynthesis.com/my=cs::my
  </pre>

  <p>A vocabulary without a namespace is mapped to the global scope. This
     also can be altered with the above options by using an empty name
     for the XML namespace:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
--namespace-map =cs
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="3.5">3.5 Thread Safety</a></h2>

  <p>XSD-generated code is thread-safe in the sense that you can
     use different instantiations of the object model in several
     threads concurrently. This is possible due to the generated
     code not relying on any writable global variables. If you need
     to share the same object between several threads then you will
     need to provide some form of synchronization. One approach would
     be to use the generated code customization mechanisms to embed
     synchronization primitives into the generated C++ classes. For more
     information on generated code customization refer to the
     <a href="http://wiki.codesynthesis.com/Tree/Customization_guide">C++/Tree
     Mapping Customization Guide</a>.</p>

  <p>If you also would like to call parsing and/or serialization
     functions from several threads potentially concurrently, then
     you will need to make sure the Xerces-C++ runtime is initialized
     and terminated only once. The easiest way to do this is to
     initialize/terminate Xerces-C++ from <code>main()</code> when
     there are no threads yet/anymore:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;xercesc/util/PlatformUtils.hpp>

int
main ()
{
  xercesc::XMLPlatformUtils::Initialize ();

  {
    // Start/terminate threads and parse/serialize here.
  }

  xercesc::XMLPlatformUtils::Terminate ();
}
  </pre>

  <p>Because you initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime yourself you should
     also pass the <code>xml_schema::flags::dont_initialize</code> flag
     to parsing and serialization functions. See <a href="#5">Chapter 5,
     "Parsing"</a> and <a href="#6">Chapter 6, "Serialization"</a> for
     more information.</p>


  <!-- Chapater 4 -->


  <h1><a name="4">4 Working with Object Models</a></h1>

  <p>As we have seen in the previous chapters, the XSD compiler generates
     a C++ class for each type defined in XML Schema. Together these classes
     constitute an object model for an XML vocabulary. In this chapter we
     will take a closer look at different elements that comprise an
     object model class as well as how to create, access, and modify
     object models.</p>

  <p>In this and subsequent chapters we will use the following schema
     that describes a collection of person records. We save it in
     <code>people.xsd</code>:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

  &lt;xs:simpleType name="gender_t">
    &lt;xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      &lt;xs:enumeration value="male"/>
      &lt;xs:enumeration value="female"/>
    &lt;/xs:restriction>
  &lt;/xs:simpleType>

  &lt;xs:complexType name="person_t">
    &lt;xs:sequence>
      &lt;xs:element name="first-name" type="xs:string"/>
      &lt;xs:element name="middle-name" type="xs:string" minOccurs="0"/>
      &lt;xs:element name="last-name" type="xs:string"/>
      &lt;xs:element name="gender" type="gender_t"/>
      &lt;xs:element name="age" type="xs:short"/>
    &lt;/xs:sequence>
    &lt;xs:attribute name="id" type="xs:unsignedInt" use="required"/>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:complexType name="people_t">
    &lt;xs:sequence>
      &lt;xs:element name="person" type="person_t" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    &lt;/xs:sequence>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:element name="people" type="people_t"/>

&lt;/xs:schema>
  </pre>

  <p>A sample XML instance to go along with this schema is saved
     in <code>people.xml</code>:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;people xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="people.xsd">

  &lt;person id="1">
    &lt;first-name>John&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>male&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>32&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>

  &lt;person id="2">
    &lt;first-name>Jane&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;middle-name>Mary&lt;/middle-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>female&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>28&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>

&lt;/people>
  </pre>

  <p>Compiling <code>people.xsd</code> with the XSD compiler results
     in three generated C++ classes: <code>gender_t</code>,
     <code>person_t</code>, and <code>people_t</code>.
     The <code>gender_t</code> class is modelled after the C++
     <code>enum</code> type. Its definition is presented below:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class gender_t: public xml_schema::string
{
public:
  enum value
  {
    male,
    female
  };

  gender_t (value);
  gender_t (const xml_schema::string&amp;);

  gender_t&amp;
  operator= (value);

  operator value () const;
};
  </pre>

  <p>The following listing shows how we can use this type:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
gender_t m (gender_t::male);
gender_t f ("female");

if (m == "female" || f == gender_t::male)
{
  ...
}

switch (m)
{
case gender_t::male:
  {
    ...
  }
case gender_t::female:
  {
    ...
  }
}
  </pre>

  <p>The other two classes will be examined in detail in the subsequent
     sections.</p>

  <h2><a name="4.1">4.1 Attribute and Element Cardinalities</a></h2>

  <p>As we have seen in the previous chapters, XSD generates a different
     set of type definitions and member functions for elements with
     different cardinalities. The C++/Tree mapping divides all the possible
     element and attribute cardinalities into three cardinality classes:
     <em>one</em>, <em>optional</em>, and <em>sequence</em>.</p>

  <p>The <em>one</em> cardinality class covers all elements that should
     occur exactly once as well as required attributes. In our
     example, the <code>first-name</code>, <code>last-name</code>,
     <code>gender</code>, and <code>age</code> elements as well as
     the <code>id</code> attribute belong to this cardinality class.
     The following code fragment shows type definitions as well as the
     accessor and modifier functions that are generated for the
     <code>gender</code> element in the <code>person_t</code> class:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class person_t
{
  // gender
  //
  typedef gender_t gender_type;

  const gender_type&amp;
  gender () const;

  gender_type&amp;
  gender ();

  void
  gender (const gender_type&amp;);
};
  </pre>

  <p>The <code>gender_type</code> type is an alias for the element's type.
     The first two accessor functions return read-only (constant) and
     read-write references to the element's value, respectively. The
     modifier function sets the new value for the element.</p>

  <p>The <em>optional</em> cardinality class covers all elements that
     can occur zero or one time as well as optional attributes. In our
     example, the <code>middle-name</code> element belongs to this
     cardinality class. The following code fragment shows the type
     definitions as well as the accessor and modifier functions that
     are generated for this element in the <code>person_t</code> class:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class person_t
{
  // middle-name
  //
  typedef xml_schema::string middle_name_type;
  typedef xsd::optional&lt;middle_name_type> middle_name_optional;

  const middle_name_optional&amp;
  middle_name () const;

  middle_name_optional&amp;
  middle_name ();

  void
  middle_name (const middle_name_type&amp;);

  void
  middle_name (const middle_name_optional&amp;);
};
  </pre>

  <p>As with the <code>gender</code> element, <code>middle_name_type</code>
     is an alias for the element's type. The <code>middle_name_optional</code>
     type is a container for the element's optional value. It can be queried
     for the presence of the value using the <code>present()</code> function.
     The value itself can be retrieved using the <code>get()</code>
     accessor and set using the <code>set()</code> modifier. The container
     can be reverted to the value not present state with the call to the
     <code>reset()</code> function. The following example shows how we
     can use this container:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
person_t::middle_name_optional n ("John");

if (n.present ())
{
  cout &lt;&lt; n.get () &lt;&lt; endl;
}

n.set ("Jane");
n.reset ();
  </pre>


  <p>Unlike the <em>one</em> cardinality class, the accessor functions
     for the <em>optional</em> class return read-only (constant) and
     read-write references to the container instead of the element's
     value directly. The modifier functions set the new value for the
     element.</p>

  <p>Finally, the <em>sequence</em> cardinality class covers all elements
     that can occur more than once. In our example, the
     <code>person</code> element in the <code>people_t</code> type
     belongs to this cardinality class. The following code fragment shows
     the type definitions as well as the accessor and modifier functions
     that are generated for this element in the <code>people_t</code>
     class:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class people_t
{
  // person
  //
  typedef person_t person_type;
  typedef xsd::sequence&lt;person_type> person_sequence;
  typedef person_sequence::iterator person_iterator;
  typedef person_sequence::const_iterator person_const_iterator;

  const person_sequence&amp;
  person () const;

  person_sequence&amp;
  person ();

  void
  person (const person_sequence&amp;);
};
  </pre>

  <p>Identical to the other cardinality classes, <code>person_type</code>
     is an alias for the element's type. The <code>person_sequence</code>
     type is a sequence container for the element's values. It is based
     on and has the same interface as <code>std::vector</code> and
     therefore can be used in similar ways. The <code>person_iterator</code>
     and <code>person_const_iterator</code> types are read-only
     (constant) and read-write iterators for the <code>person_sequence</code>
     container.</p>

  <p>Similar to the <em>optional</em> cardinality class, the
     accessor functions for the <em>sequence</em> class return
     read-only (constant) and read-write references to the sequence
     container. The modifier functions copies the entries from
     the passed sequence.</p>

  <p>C++/Tree is a "flattening" mapping in a sense that many levels of
     nested compositors (<code>choice</code> and <code>sequence</code>),
     all potentially with their own cardinalities, are in the end mapped
     to a flat set of elements with one of the three cardinality classes
     discussed above. While this results in a simple and easy to use API
     for most types, in certain cases, the order of elements in the actual
     XML documents is not preserved once parsed into the object model. To
     overcome this limitation we can mark certain schema types, for which
     content order is not sufficiently preserved, as ordered. For more
     information on this functionality refer to
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#2.8.4">Section
     2.8.4, "Element Order"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping User Manual.</p>

  <p>For complex schemas with many levels of nested compositors
     (<code>choice</code> and <code>sequence</code>) it can also
     be hard to deduce the cardinality class of a particular element.
     The generated Doxygen documentation can greatly help with
     this task. For each element and attribute the documentation
     clearly identifies its cardinality class. Alternatively, you
     can study the generated header files to find out the cardinality
     class of a particular attribute or element.</p>

  <p>In the next sections we will examine how to access and modify
     information stored in an object model using accessor and modifier
     functions described in this section.</p>

  <h2><a name="4.2">4.2 Accessing the Object Model</a></h2>

  <p>In this section we will learn how to get to the information
     stored in the object model for our person records vocabulary.
     The following application accesses and prints the contents
     of the <code>people.xml</code> file:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;iostream>
#include "people.hxx"

using namespace std;

int
main ()
{
  auto_ptr&lt;people_t> ppl (people ("people.xml"));

  // Iterate over individual person records.
  //
  people_t::person_sequence&amp; ps (ppl->person ());

  for (people_t::person_iterator i (ps.begin ()); i != ps.end (); ++i)
  {
    person_t&amp; p (*i);

    // Print names: first-name and last-name are required elements,
    // middle-name is optional.
    //
    cout &lt;&lt; "name:   " &lt;&lt; p.first_name () &lt;&lt; " ";

    if (p.middle_name ().present ())
      cout &lt;&lt; p.middle_name ().get () &lt;&lt; " ";

    cout &lt;&lt; p.last_name () &lt;&lt; endl;

    // Print gender, age, and id which are all required.
    //
    cout &lt;&lt; "gender: " &lt;&lt; p.gender () &lt;&lt; endl
         &lt;&lt; "age:    " &lt;&lt; p.age () &lt;&lt; endl
         &lt;&lt; "id:     " &lt;&lt; p.id () &lt;&lt; endl
         &lt;&lt; endl;
  }
}
  </pre>

  <p>This code shows common patterns of accessing elements and attributes
     with different cardinality classes. For the sequence element
     (<code>person</code> in <code>people_t</code>) we first obtain a
     reference to the container and then iterate over individual
     records. The values of elements and attributes with the
     <em>one</em> cardinality class (<code>first-name</code>,
     <code>last-name</code>, <code>gender</code>, <code>age</code>,
     and <code>id</code>) can be obtained directly by calling the
     corresponding accessor functions. For the optional element
     <code>middle-name</code> we first check if the value is present
     and only then call <code>get()</code> to retrieve it.</p>

  <p>Note that when we want to reduce typing by creating a variable
     representing a fragment of the object model that we are currently
     working with (<code>ps</code> and <code>p</code> above), we obtain
     a reference to that fragment instead of making a potentially
     expensive copy. This is generally a good rule to follow when
     creating high-performance applications.</p>

  <p>If we run the above application on our sample
     <code>people.xml</code>, the output looks as follows:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
name:   John Doe
gender: male
age:    32
id:     1

name:   Jane Mary Doe
gender: female
age:    28
id:     2
  </pre>


  <h2><a name="4.3">4.3 Modifying the Object Model</a></h2>

  <p>In this section we will learn how to modify the information
     stored in the object model for our person records vocabulary.
     The following application changes the contents of the
     <code>people.xml</code> file:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;iostream>
#include "people.hxx"

using namespace std;

int
main ()
{
  auto_ptr&lt;people_t> ppl (people ("people.xml"));

  // Iterate over individual person records and increment
  // the age.
  //
  people_t::person_sequence&amp; ps (ppl->person ());

  for (people_t::person_iterator i (ps.begin ()); i != ps.end (); ++i)
  {
    // Alternative way: i->age ()++;
    //
    i->age (i->age () + 1);
  }

  // Add middle-name to the first record and remove it from
  // the second.
  //
  person_t&amp; john (ps[0]);
  person_t&amp; jane (ps[1]);

  john.middle_name ("Mary");
  jane.middle_name ().reset ();

  // Add another John record.
  //
  ps.push_back (john);

  // Serialize the modified object model to XML.
  //
  xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
  map[""].name = "";
  map[""].schema = "people.xsd";

  people (cout, *ppl, map);
}
  </pre>

  <p>The first modification the above application performs is iterating
     over person records and incrementing the age value. This code
     fragment shows how to modify the value of a required attribute
     or element. The next modification shows how to set a new value
     for the optional <code>middle-name</code> element as well
     as clear its value. Finally the example adds a copy of the
     John Doe record to the <code>person</code> element sequence.</p>

  <p>Note that in this case using references for the <code>ps</code>,
     <code>john</code>, and <code>jane</code> variables is no longer
     a performance improvement but a requirement for the application
     to function correctly. If we hadn't used references, all our changes
     would have been made on copies without affecting the object model.</p>

  <p>If we run the above application on our sample <code>people.xml</code>,
     the output looks as follows:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;people xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="people.xsd">

  &lt;person id="1">
    &lt;first-name>John&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;middle-name>Mary&lt;/middle-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>male&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>33&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>

  &lt;person id="2">
    &lt;first-name>Jane&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>female&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>29&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>

  &lt;person id="1">
    &lt;first-name>John&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;middle-name>Mary&lt;/middle-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>male&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>33&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>

&lt;/people>
  </pre>


  <h2><a name="4.4">4.4 Creating the Object Model from Scratch</a></h2>

  <p>In this section we will learn how to create a new object model
     for our person records vocabulary. The following application
     recreates the content of the original <code>people.xml</code>
     file:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;iostream>
#include "people.hxx"

using namespace std;

int
main ()
{
  people_t ppl;
  people_t::person_sequence&amp; ps (ppl.person ());

  // Add the John Doe record.
  //
  ps.push_back (
    person_t ("John",         // first-name
              "Doe",          // last-name
              gender_t::male, // gender
              32,             // age
              1));

  // Add the Jane Doe record.
  //
  ps.push_back (
    person_t ("Jane",           // first-name
              "Doe",            // last-name
              gender_t::female, // gender
              28,               // age
              2));              // id

  // Add middle name to the Jane Doe record.
  //
  person_t&amp; jane (ps.back ());
  jane.middle_name ("Mary");

  // Serialize the object model to XML.
  //
  xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
  map[""].name = "";
  map[""].schema = "people.xsd";

  people (cout, ppl, map);
}
  </pre>

  <p>The only new part in the above application is the calls
     to the <code>people_t</code> and <code>person_t</code>
     constructors. As a general rule, for each C++ class
     XSD generates a constructor with initializers
     for each element and attribute belonging to the <em>one</em>
     cardinality class. For our vocabulary, the following
     constructors are generated:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class person_t
{
  person_t (const first_name_type&amp;,
            const last_name_type&amp;,
            const gender_type&amp;,
            const age_type&amp;,
            const id_type&amp;);
};

class people_t
{
  people_t ();
};
  </pre>

  <p>Note also that we set the <code>middle-name</code> element
     on the Jane Doe record by obtaining a reference to that record
     in the object model and setting the <code>middle-name</code>
     value on it. This is a general rule that should be followed
     in order to obtain the best performance: if possible,
     direct modifications to the object model should be preferred
     to modifications on temporaries with subsequent copying. The
     following code fragment shows a semantically equivalent but
     slightly slower version:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
// Add the Jane Doe record.
//
person_t jane ("Jane",           // first-name
               "Doe",            // last-name
               gender_t::female, // gender
               28,               // age
               2);               // id

jane.middle_name ("Mary");

ps.push_back (jane);
  </pre>

  <p>We can also go one step further to reduce copying and improve
     the performance of our application by using the non-copying
    <code>push_back()</code> function which assumes ownership
     of the passed objects:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
// Add the John Doe record. C++98 version.
//
auto_ptr&lt;person_t> john_p (
  new person_t ("John",           // first-name
                "Doe",            // last-name
                gender_t::male,   // gender
                32,               // age
                1));
ps.push_back (john_p); // assumes ownership

// Add the Jane Doe record. C++11 version
//
unique_ptr&lt;person_t> jane_p (
  new person_t ("Jane",           // first-name
                "Doe",            // last-name
                gender_t::female, // gender
                28,               // age
                2));              // id
ps.push_back (std::move (jane_p)); // assumes ownership
  </pre>

  <p>For more information on the non-copying modifier functions refer to
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#2.8">Section
     2.8, "Mapping for Local Elements and Attributes"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping
     User Manual. The above application produces the following output:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0" ?>
&lt;people xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="people.xsd">

  &lt;person id="1">
    &lt;first-name>John&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>male&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>32&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>

  &lt;person id="2">
    &lt;first-name>Jane&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;middle-name>Mary&lt;/middle-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>female&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>28&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>

&lt;/people>
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="4.5">4.5 Mapping for the Built-in XML Schema Types</a></h2>

  <p>Our person record vocabulary uses several built-in XML Schema
     types: <code>string</code>, <code>short</code>, and
     <code>unsignedInt</code>. Until now we haven't talked about
     the mapping of built-in XML Schema types to C++ types and how
     to work with them. This section provides an overview
     of the built-in types. For more detailed information refer
     to <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#2.5">Section
     2.5, "Mapping for Built-in Data Types"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping
     User Manual.</p>

  <p>In XML Schema, built-in types are defined in the XML Schema namespace.
     By default, the C++/Tree mapping maps this namespace to C++
     namespace <code>xml_schema</code> (this mapping can be altered
     with the <code>--namespace-map</code> option). The following table
     summarizes the mapping of XML Schema built-in types to C++ types:</p>

  <!-- border="1" is necessary for html2ps -->
  <table id="builtin" border="1">
    <tr>
      <th>XML Schema type</th>
      <th>Alias in the <code>xml_schema</code> namespace</th>
      <th>C++ type</th>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">fixed-length integral types</th>
    </tr>
    <!-- 8-bit -->
    <tr>
      <td><code>byte</code></td>
      <td><code>byte</code></td>
      <td><code>signed&nbsp;char</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>unsignedByte</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned_byte</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;char</code></td>
    </tr>

    <!-- 16-bit -->
    <tr>
      <td><code>short</code></td>
      <td><code>short_</code></td>
      <td><code>short</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>unsignedShort</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned_short</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;short</code></td>
    </tr>

    <!-- 32-bit -->
    <tr>
      <td><code>int</code></td>
      <td><code>int_</code></td>
      <td><code>int</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>unsignedInt</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned_int</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;int</code></td>
    </tr>

    <!-- 64-bit -->
    <tr>
      <td><code>long</code></td>
      <td><code>long_</code></td>
      <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>unsignedLong</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned_long</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">arbitrary-length integral types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>integer</code></td>
      <td><code>integer</code></td>
      <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>nonPositiveInteger</code></td>
      <td><code>non_positive_integer</code></td>
      <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>nonNegativeInteger</code></td>
      <td><code>non_negative_integer</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>positiveInteger</code></td>
      <td><code>positive_integer</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>negativeInteger</code></td>
      <td><code>negative_integer</code></td>
      <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">boolean types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>boolean</code></td>
      <td><code>boolean</code></td>
      <td><code>bool</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">fixed-precision floating-point types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>float</code></td>
      <td><code>float_</code></td>
      <td><code>float</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>double</code></td>
      <td><code>double_</code></td>
      <td><code>double</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">arbitrary-precision floating-point types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>decimal</code></td>
      <td><code>decimal</code></td>
      <td><code>double</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">string types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>string</code></td>
      <td><code>string</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>std::basic_string</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>normalizedString</code></td>
      <td><code>normalized_string</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>string</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>token</code></td>
      <td><code>token</code></td>
      <td>type&nbsp;derived&nbsp;from&nbsp;<code>normalized_string</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>Name</code></td>
      <td><code>name</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>token</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>NMTOKEN</code></td>
      <td><code>nmtoken</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>token</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>NMTOKENS</code></td>
      <td><code>nmtokens</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>sequence&lt;nmtoken></code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>NCName</code></td>
      <td><code>ncname</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>name</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>language</code></td>
      <td><code>language</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>token</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">qualified name</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>QName</code></td>
      <td><code>qname</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::qname</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">ID/IDREF types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>ID</code></td>
      <td><code>id</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>ncname</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>IDREF</code></td>
      <td><code>idref</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>ncname</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>IDREFS</code></td>
      <td><code>idrefs</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>sequence&lt;idref></code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">URI types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>anyURI</code></td>
      <td><code>uri</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>std::basic_string</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">binary types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>base64Binary</code></td>
      <td><code>base64_binary</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::base64_binary</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>hexBinary</code></td>
      <td><code>hex_binary</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::hex_binary</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">date/time types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>date</code></td>
      <td><code>date</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::date</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>dateTime</code></td>
      <td><code>date_time</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::date_time</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>duration</code></td>
      <td><code>duration</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::duration</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gDay</code></td>
      <td><code>gday</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gday</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gMonth</code></td>
      <td><code>gmonth</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gmonth</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gMonthDay</code></td>
      <td><code>gmonth_day</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gmonth_day</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gYear</code></td>
      <td><code>gyear</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gyear</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gYearMonth</code></td>
      <td><code>gyear_month</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gyear_month</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>time</code></td>
      <td><code>time</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::time</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">entity types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>ENTITY</code></td>
      <td><code>entity</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>name</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>ENTITIES</code></td>
      <td><code>entities</code></td>
      <td>type derived from <code>sequence&lt;entity></code></td>
    </tr>
  </table>

  <p>As you can see from the table above a number of built-in
     XML Schema types are mapped to fundamental C++ types such
     as <code>int</code> or <code>bool</code>. All string-based
     XML Schema types are mapped to C++ types that are derived
     from either <code>std::string</code> or
     <code>std::wstring</code>, depending on the character
     type selected. For access and modification purposes these
     types can be treated as <code>std::string</code>. A number
     of built-in types, such as <code>qname</code>, the binary
     types, and the date/time types do not have suitable
     fundamental or standard C++ types to map to. As a result,
     these types are implemented from scratch in the XSD runtime.
     For more information on their interfaces refer to
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#2.5">Section
     2.5, "Mapping for Built-in Data Types"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping
     User Manual.</p>


  <!-- Chapater 5 -->


  <h1><a name="5">5 Parsing</a></h1>

  <p>We have already seen how to parse XML to an object model in this guide
     before. In this chapter we will discuss the parsing topic in more
     detail.</p>

  <p>By default, the C++/Tree mapping provides a total of 14 overloaded
     parsing functions. They differ in the input methods used to
     read XML as well as the error reporting mechanisms. It is also possible
     to generate types for root elements instead of parsing and serialization
     functions. This may be useful if your XML vocabulary has multiple
     root elements. For more information on element types refer to
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#2.9">Section
     2.9, "Mapping for Global Elements"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping User
     Manual.</p>


  <p>In this section we will discuss the most commonly used versions of
     the parsing functions. For a comprehensive description of parsing
     refer to <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#3">Chapter
     3, "Parsing"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping User Manual. For the <code>people</code>
     global element from our person record vocabulary, we will concentrate
     on the following three parsing functions:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
std::[auto|unique]_ptr&lt;people_t>
people (const std::string&amp; uri,
	xml_schema::flags f = 0,
	const xml_schema::properties&amp; p = xml_schema::properties ());

std::[auto|unique]_ptr&lt;people_t>
people (std::istream&amp; is,
        xml_schema::flags f = 0,
        const xml_schema::properties&amp; p = xml_schema::properties ());

std::[auto|unique]_ptr&lt;people_t>
people (std::istream&amp; is,
        const std::string&amp; resource_id,
        xml_schema::flags f = 0,
        const xml_schema::properties&amp; p = ::xml_schema::properties ());
  </pre>

  <p>The first function parses a local file or a URI. We have already
     used this parsing function in the previous chapters. The second
     and third functions read XML from a standard input stream. The
     last function also requires a resource id. This id is used to
     identify the XML document being parser in diagnostics  messages
     as well as to resolve relative paths to other documents (for example,
     schemas) that might be referenced from the XML document.</p>

  <p>The last two arguments to all three parsing functions are parsing
     flags and properties. The flags argument provides a number of ways
     to fine-tune the parsing process. The properties argument allows
     to pass additional information to the parsing functions. We will
     use these two arguments in <a href="#5.1">Section 5.1, "XML Schema
     Validation and Searching"</a> below. All three functions return
     the object model as either <code>std::auto_ptr</code> (C++98) or
     <code>std::unique_ptr</code> (C++11), depending on the C++ standard
     selected (<code>--std</code> XSD compiler option). The following
     example shows how we can use the above parsing functions:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
using std::auto_ptr;

// Parse a local file or URI.
//
auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p1 (people ("people.xml"));
auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p2 (people ("http://example.com/people.xml"));

// Parse a local file via ifstream.
//
std::ifstream ifs ("people.xml");
auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p3 (people (ifs, "people.xml"));

// Parse an XML string.
//
std::string str ("..."); // XML in a string.
std::istringstream iss (str);
auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p4 (people (iss));
  </pre>


  <h2><a name="5.1">5.1 XML Schema Validation and Searching</a></h2>

  <p>The C++/Tree mapping relies on the underlying Xerces-C++ XML
     parser for full XML document validation. The XML Schema
     validation is enabled by default and can be disabled by
     passing the <code>xml_schema::flags::dont_validate</code>
     flag to the parsing functions, for example:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p (
  people ("people.xml", xml_schema::flags::dont_validate));
  </pre>

  <p>Even when XML Schema validation is disabled, the generated
     code still performs a number of checks to prevent
     construction of an inconsistent object model (for example, an
     object model with missing required attributes or elements).</p>

  <p>When XML Schema validation is enabled, the XML parser needs
     to locate a schema to validate against. There are several
     methods to provide the schema location information to the
     parser. The easiest and most commonly used method is to
     specify schema locations in the XML document itself
     with the <code>schemaLocation</code> or
     <code>noNamespaceSchemaLocation</code> attributes, for example:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0" ?>
&lt;people xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
        xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="people.xsd"
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace xml.xsd">
  </pre>

  <p>As you might have noticed, we used this method in all the sample XML
     documents presented in this guide up until now. Note that the
     schema locations specified with these two attributes are relative
     to the document's path unless they are absolute URIs (that is
     start with <code>http://</code>, <code>file://</code>, etc.).
     In particular, if you specify just file names as your schema
     locations, as we did above, then the schemas should reside in
     the same directory as the XML document itself.</p>

  <p>Another method of providing the schema location information
     is via the <code>xml_schema::properties</code> argument, as
     shown in the following example:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
xml_schema::properties props;
props.no_namespace_schema_location ("people.xsd");
props.schema_location ("http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace", "xml.xsd");

auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p (people ("people.xml", 0, props));
  </pre>

  <p>The schema locations provided with this method overrides
     those specified in the XML document. As with the previous
     method, the schema locations specified this way are
     relative to the document's path unless they are absolute URIs.
     In particular, if you want to use local schemas that are
     not related to the document being parsed, then you will
     need to use the <code>file://</code> URI. The following
     example shows how to use schemas that reside in the current
     working directory:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;unistd.h> // getcwd
#include &lt;limits.h> // PATH_MAX

char cwd[PATH_MAX];
if (getcwd (cwd, PATH_MAX) == 0)
{
  // Buffer too small?
}

xml_schema::properties props;

props.no_namespace_schema_location (
  "file:///" + std::string (cwd) + "/people.xsd");

props.schema_location (
  "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace",
  "file:///" + std::string (cwd) + "/xml.xsd");

auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p (people ("people.xml", 0, props));
  </pre>

  <p>A third method is the most useful if you are planning to parse
     several XML documents of the same vocabulary. In that case
     it may be beneficial to pre-parse and cache the schemas in
     the XML parser which can then be used to parse all documents
     without re-parsing the schemas. For more information on
     this method refer to the <code>caching</code> example in the
     <code>examples/cxx/tree/</code> directory of the XSD
     distribution. It is also possible to convert the schemas into
     a pre-compiled binary representation and embed this  representation
     directly into the application executable. With this approach your
     application can perform XML Schema validation without depending on
     any external schema files. For more information on how to achieve
     this refer to the <code>embedded</code> example in the
     <code>examples/cxx/tree/</code> directory of the XSD distribution.</p>

  <p>When the XML parser cannot locate a schema for the
     XML document, the validation fails and XML document
     elements and attributes for which schema definitions could
     not be located are reported in the diagnostics. For
     example, if we remove the <code>noNamespaceSchemaLocation</code>
     attribute in <code>people.xml</code> from the previous chapter,
     then we will get the following diagnostics if we try to parse
     this file with validation enabled:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
people.xml:2:63 error: no declaration found for element 'people'
people.xml:4:18 error: no declaration found for element 'person'
people.xml:4:18 error: attribute 'id' is not declared for element 'person'
people.xml:5:17 error: no declaration found for element 'first-name'
people.xml:6:18 error: no declaration found for element 'middle-name'
people.xml:7:16 error: no declaration found for element 'last-name'
people.xml:8:13 error: no declaration found for element 'gender'
people.xml:9:10 error: no declaration found for element 'age'
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="5.2">5.2 Error Handling</a></h2>

  <p>The parsing functions offer a number of ways to handle error conditions
     with the C++ exceptions being the most commonly used mechanism. All
     C++/Tree exceptions derive from common base <code>xml_schema::exception</code>
     which in turn derives from <code>std::exception</code>. The easiest
     way to uniformly handle all possible C++/Tree exceptions and print
     detailed information about the error is to catch and print
     <code>xml_schema::exception</code>, as shown in the following
     example:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
try
{
  auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p (people ("people.xml"));
}
catch (const xml_schema::exception&amp; e)
{
  cerr &lt;&lt; e &lt;&lt; endl;
}
  </pre>

  <p>Each individual C++/Tree exception also allows you to obtain
     error details programmatically. For example, the
     <code>xml_schema::parsing</code> exception is thrown when
     the XML parsing and validation in the underlying XML parser
     fails. It encapsulates various diagnostics information
     such as the file name, line and column numbers, as well as the
     error or warning message for each entry. For more information
     about this and other exceptions that can be thrown during
     parsing, refer to
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#3.3">Section
     3.3, "Error Handling"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping
     User Manual.</p>

  <p>Note that if you are parsing <code>std::istream</code> on which
     exceptions are not enabled, then you will need to check the
     stream state after the call to the parsing function in order
     to detect any possible stream failures, for example:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
std::ifstream ifs ("people.xml");

if (ifs.fail ())
{
  cerr &lt;&lt; "people.xml: unable to open" &lt;&lt; endl;
  return 1;
}

auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p (people (ifs, "people.xml"));

if (ifs.fail ())
{
  cerr &lt;&lt; "people.xml: read error" &lt;&lt; endl;
  return 1;
}
  </pre>

  <p>The above example can be rewritten to use exceptions as
     shown below:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
try
{
  std::ifstream ifs;
  ifs.exceptions (std::ifstream::badbit | std::ifstream::failbit);
  ifs.open ("people.xml");

  auto_ptr&lt;people_t> p (people (ifs, "people.xml"));
}
catch (const std::ifstream::failure&amp;)
{
  cerr &lt;&lt; "people.xml: unable to open or read error" &lt;&lt; endl;
  return 1;
}
  </pre>


  <!-- Chapater 6 -->


  <h1><a name="6">6 Serialization</a></h1>

  <p>We have already seen how to serialize an object model back to XML
     in this guide before. In this chapter we will discuss the
     serialization topic in more detail.</p>

  <p>By default, the C++/Tree mapping provides a total of 8 overloaded
     serialization functions. They differ in the output methods used to write
     XML as well as the error reporting mechanisms. It is also possible to
     generate types for root elements instead of parsing and serialization
     functions. This may be useful if your XML vocabulary has multiple
     root elements. For more information on element types refer to
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#2.9">Section
     2.9, "Mapping for Global Elements"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping User
     Manual.</p>


  <p>In this section we will discuss the most commonly
     used version of serialization functions. For a comprehensive description
     of serialization refer to
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#4">Chapter
     4, "Serialization"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping User Manual. For the
     <code>people</code> global element from our person record vocabulary,
     we will concentrate on the following serialization function:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
void
people (std::ostream&amp; os,
        const people_t&amp; x,
        const xml_schema::namespace_infomap&amp; map =
          xml_schema::namespace_infomap (),
        const std::string&amp; encoding = "UTF-8",
        xml_schema::flags f = 0);
  </pre>

  <p>This function serializes the object model passed as the second
     argument to the standard output stream passed as the first
     argument. The third argument is a namespace information map
     which we will discuss in more detail in the next section.
     The fourth argument is a character encoding that the resulting
     XML document should be in. Possible valid values for this
     argument are "US-ASCII", "ISO8859-1", "UTF-8", "UTF-16BE",
     "UTF-16LE", "UCS-4BE", and "UCS-4LE". Finally, the flags
     argument allows fine-tuning of the serialization process.
     The following example shows how we can use the above serialization
     function:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
people_t&amp; p = ...

xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
map[""].schema = "people.xsd";

// Serialize to stdout.
//
people (std::cout, p, map);

// Serialize to a file.
//
std::ofstream ofs ("people.xml");
people (ofs, p, map);

// Serialize to a string.
//
std::ostringstream oss;
people (oss, p, map);
std::string xml (oss.str ());
  </pre>


  <h2><a name="6.1">6.1 Namespace and Schema Information</a></h2>

  <p>While XML serialization can be done just from the object
     model alone, it is often desirable to assign meaningful
     prefixes to XML namespaces used in the vocabulary as
     well as to provide the schema location information.
     This is accomplished by passing the namespace information
     map to the serialization function. The key in this map is
     a namespace prefix that should be assigned to an XML namespace
     specified in the <code>name</code> variable of the
     map value. You can also assign an optional schema location for
     this namespace in the <code>schema</code> variable. Based
     on each key-value entry in this map, the serialization
     function adds two attributes to the resulting XML document:
     the namespace-prefix mapping attribute and schema location
     attribute. The empty prefix indicates that the namespace
     should be mapped without a prefix. For example, the following
     map:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;

map[""].name = "http://www.example.com/example";
map[""].schema = "example.xsd";

map["x"].name = "http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace";
map["x"].schema = "xml.xsd";
  </pre>

  <p>Results in the following XML document:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0" ?>
&lt;example
  xmlns="http://www.example.com/example"
  xmlns:x="http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace"
  xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
  xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.example.com/example example.xsd
                      http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace xml.xsd">
  </pre>

  <p>The empty namespace indicates that the vocabulary has no target
     namespace. For example, the following map results in only the
     <code>noNamespaceSchemaLocation</code> attribute being added:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;

map[""].name = "";
map[""].schema = "example.xsd";
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="6.2">6.2 Error Handling</a></h2>

  <p>Similar to the parsing functions, the serialization functions offer a
     number of ways to handle error conditions with the C++ exceptions being
     the most commonly used mechanisms. As with parsing, the easiest way to
     uniformly handle all possible serialization exceptions and print
     detailed information about the error is to catch and print
     <code>xml_schema::exception</code>:</p>

 <pre class="c++">
try
{
  people_t&amp; p = ...

  xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
  map[""].schema = "people.xsd";

  people (std::cout, p, map));
}
catch (const xml_schema::exception&amp; e)
{
  cerr &lt;&lt; e &lt;&lt; endl;
}
  </pre>

  <p>The most commonly encountered serialization exception is
     <code>xml_schema::serialization</code>. It is thrown
     when the XML serialization in the underlying XML writer
     fails. It encapsulates various diagnostics information
     such as the file name, line and column numbers, as well as the
     error or warning message for each entry. For more information
     about this and other exceptions that can be thrown during
     serialization, refer to
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/#4.4">Section
     4.4, "Error Handling"</a> in the C++/Tree Mapping
     User Manual.</p>

  <p>Note that if you are serializing to <code>std::ostream</code> on
     which exceptions are not enabled, then you will need to check the
     stream state after the call to the serialization function in order
     to detect any possible stream failures, for example:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
std::ofstream ofs ("people.xml");

if (ofs.fail ())
{
  cerr &lt;&lt; "people.xml: unable to open" &lt;&lt; endl;
  return 1;
}

people (ofs, p, map));

if (ofs.fail ())
{
  cerr &lt;&lt; "people.xml: write error" &lt;&lt; endl;
  return 1;
}
  </pre>

  <p>The above example can be rewritten to use exceptions as
     shown below:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
try
{
  std::ofstream ofs;
  ofs.exceptions (std::ofstream::badbit | std::ofstream::failbit);
  ofs.open ("people.xml");

  people (ofs, p, map));
}
catch (const std::ofstream::failure&amp;)
{
  cerr &lt;&lt; "people.xml: unable to open or write error" &lt;&lt; endl;
  return 1;
}
  </pre>

  </div>
</div>

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