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    padding-top      : 0.3em;
    padding-bottom   : 0.3em;
  }

  ol.steps {
    padding-left     : 1.8em;
  }

  ol.steps li {
    padding-top      : 0.3em;
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    text-align: center;
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    font-size        : 11px;
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    margin: 2em 0 2em 0;

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  }

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  }

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    text-align: left;
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  table.toc {
    border-style      : none;
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    margin            : 0.2em 0 0.2em 0;
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</style>


</head>

<body>
<div id="container">
  <div id="content">

  <div class="noprint">

  <div id="titlepage">
    <div class="title" id="first-title">C++/Parser Mapping</div>
    <div class="title" id="second-title">Getting Started Guide</div>

  <p>Copyright &copy; 2005-2014 CODE SYNTHESIS TOOLS CC</p>

  <p>Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
     document under the terms of the
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/licenses/fdl-1.2.txt">GNU Free
     Documentation License, version 1.2</a>; with no Invariant Sections,
     no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts.
  </p>

  <p>This document is available in the following formats:
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/parser/guide/index.xhtml">XHTML</a>,
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/parser/guide/cxx-parser-guide.pdf">PDF</a>, and
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/parser/guide/cxx-parser-guide.ps">PostScript</a>.</p>

  </div>

  <h1>Table of Contents</h1>

  <table class="toc">
    <tr>
      <th></th><td><a href="#0">Preface</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th></th><td><a href="#0.1">About This Document</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th></th><td><a href="#0.2">More Information</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>1</th><td><a href="#1">Introduction</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>1.1</th><td><a href="#1.1">Mapping Overview</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>1.2</th><td><a href="#1.2">Benefits</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>2</th><td><a href="#2">Hello World Example</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>2.1</th><td><a href="#2.1">Writing XML Document and Schema</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>2.2</th><td><a href="#2.2">Translating Schema to C++</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>2.3</th><td><a href="#2.3">Implementing Application Logic</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>2.4</th><td><a href="#2.4">Compiling and Running</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>3</th><td><a href="#3">Parser Skeletons</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>3.1</th><td><a href="#3.1">Implementing the Gender Parser</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>3.2</th><td><a href="#3.2">Implementing the Person Parser</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>3.3</th><td><a href="#3.3">Implementing the People Parser</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>3.4</th><td><a href="#3.4">Connecting the Parsers Together</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>4</th><td><a href="#4">Type Maps</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>4.1</th><td><a href="#4.1">Object Model</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>4.2</th><td><a href="#4.2">Type Map File Format</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>4.3</th><td><a href="#4.3">Parser Implementations</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>5</th><td><a href="#5">Mapping Configuration</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>5.1</th><td><a href="#5.1">C++ Standard</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>5.2</th><td><a href="#5.2">Character Type and Encoding</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>5.3</th><td><a href="#5.3">Underlying XML Parser</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>5.4</th><td><a href="#5.4">XML Schema Validation</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>5.5</th><td><a href="#5.5">Support for Polymorphism</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>6</th><td><a href="#6">Built-In XML Schema Type Parsers</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>6.1</th><td><a href="#6.1"><code>QName</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>6.2</th><td><a href="#6.2"><code>NMTOKENS</code> and <code>IDREFS</code> Parsers</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>6.3</th><td><a href="#6.3"><code>base64Binary</code> and <code>hexBinary</code> Parsers</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.4</th><td><a href="#6.4">Time Zone Representation</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.5</th><td><a href="#6.5"><code>date</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.6</th><td><a href="#6.6"><code>dateTime</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.7</th><td><a href="#6.7"><code>duration</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.8</th><td><a href="#6.8"><code>gDay</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.9</th><td><a href="#6.9"><code>gMonth</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.10</th><td><a href="#6.10"><code>gMonthDay</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.11</th><td><a href="#6.11"><code>gYear</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.12</th><td><a href="#6.12"><code>gYearMonth</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
	  <tr><th>6.13</th><td><a href="#6.13"><code>time</code> Parser</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th>7</th><td><a href="#7">Document Parser and Error Handling</a>
        <table class="toc">
          <tr><th>7.1</th><td><a href="#7.1">Xerces-C++ Document Parser</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>7.2</th><td><a href="#7.2">Expat Document Parser</a></td></tr>
          <tr><th>7.3</th><td><a href="#7.3">Error Handling</a></td></tr>
        </table>
      </td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th></th><td><a href="#A">Appendix A &mdash; Supported XML Schema Constructs</a></td>
    </tr>

  </table>
  </div>

  <h1><a name="0">Preface</a></h1>

  <h2><a name="0.1">About This Document</a></h2>

  <p>The goal of this document is to provide you with an understanding of
     the C++/Parser programming model and allow you to efficiently evaluate
     XSD against your project's technical requirements. As such, this
     document is intended for C++ developers and software architects
     who are looking for an XML processing solution. Prior experience
     with XML and C++ is required to understand this document. Basic
     understanding of XML Schema is advantageous but not expected
     or required.
  </p>


  <h2><a name="0.2">More Information</a></h2>

  <p>Beyond this guide, you may also find the following sources of
     information useful:</p>

  <ul class="list">
    <li><a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
        Compiler Command Line Manual</a></li>

    <li>The <code>examples/cxx/parser/</code> directory in the XSD
        distribution contains a collection of examples and a README
        file with an overview of each example.</li>

    <li>The <code>README</code> file in the XSD distribution explains
        how to compile the examples on various platforms.</li>

    <li>The <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/mailman/listinfo/xsd-users">xsd-users</a>
        mailing list is the place to ask technical questions about XSD and the C++/Parser mapping.
        Furthermore, the <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/pipermail/xsd-users/">archives</a>
        may already have answers to some of your questions.</li>

  </ul>

  <!-- Introduction -->

  <h1><a name="1">1 Introduction</a></h1>

  <p>Welcome to CodeSynthesis XSD and the C++/Parser mapping. XSD is a
     cross-platform W3C XML Schema to C++ data binding compiler. C++/Parser
     is a W3C XML Schema to C++ mapping that represents an XML vocabulary
     as a set of parser skeletons which you can implement to perform XML
     processing as required by your application logic.
  </p>

  <h2><a name="1.1">1.1 Mapping Overview</a></h2>

  <p>The C++/Parser mapping provides event-driven, stream-oriented
     XML parsing, XML Schema validation, and C++ data binding. It was
     specifically designed and optimized for high performance and
     small footprint. Based on the static analysis of the schemas, XSD
     generates compact, highly-optimized hierarchical state machines
     that combine data extraction, validation, and even dispatching
     in a single step. As a result, the generated code is typically
     2-10 times faster than general-purpose validating XML parsers
     while maintaining the lowest static and dynamic memory footprints.
  </p>

  <p>To speed up application development, the C++/Parser mapping
     can be instructed to generate sample parser implementations
     and a test driver which can then be filled with the application
     logic code. The mapping also provides a wide range of
     mechanisms for controlling and customizing the generated code.</p>

  <p>The next chapter shows how to create a simple application that uses
     the C++/Parser mapping to parse, validate, and extract data from a
     simple XML document. The following chapters show how to
     use the C++/Parser mapping in more detail.</p>

  <h2><a name="1.2">1.2 Benefits</a></h2>

  <p>Traditional XML access APIs such as Document Object Model (DOM)
     or Simple API for XML (SAX) have a number of drawbacks that
     make them less suitable for creating robust and maintainable
     XML processing applications. These drawbacks include:
  </p>

  <ul class="list">
    <li>Generic representation of XML in terms of elements, attributes,
        and text forces an application developer to write a substantial
        amount of bridging code that identifies and transforms pieces
        of information encoded in XML to a representation more suitable
        for consumption by the application logic.</li>

    <li>String-based flow control defers error detection to runtime.
        It also reduces code readability and maintainability.</li>

    <li>Lack of type safety because the data is represented
        as text.</li>

    <li>Resulting applications are hard to debug, change, and
        maintain.</li>
  </ul>

  <p>In contrast, statically-typed, vocabulary-specific parser
     skeletons produced by the C++/Parser mapping allow you to
     operate in your domain terms instead of the generic elements,
     attributes, and text. Static typing helps catch errors at
     compile-time rather than at run-time. Automatic code generation
     frees you for more interesting tasks (such as doing something
     useful with the information stored in the XML documents) and
     minimizes the effort needed to adapt your applications to
     changes in the document structure. To summarize, the C++/Parser
     mapping has the following key advantages over generic XML
     access APIs:</p>

  <ul class="list">
    <li><b>Ease of use.</b> The generated code hides all the complexity
        associated with recreating the document structure, maintaining the
        dispatch state, and converting the data from the text representation
        to data types suitable for manipulation by the application logic.
        Parser skeletons also provide a convenient mechanism for building
        custom in-memory representations.</li>

    <li><b>Natural representation.</b> The generated parser skeletons
        implement parser callbacks as virtual functions with names
        corresponding to elements and attributes in XML. As a result,
        you process the XML data using your domain vocabulary instead
        of generic elements, attributes, and text.
    </li>

    <li><b>Concise code.</b> With a separate parser skeleton for each
        XML Schema type, the application implementation is
        simpler and thus easier to read and understand.</li>

    <li><b>Safety.</b> The XML data is delivered to parser callbacks as
        statically typed objects. The parser callbacks themselves are virtual
        functions. This helps catch programming errors at compile-time
        rather than at runtime.</li>

    <li><b>Maintainability.</b> Automatic code generation minimizes the
        effort needed to adapt the application to changes in the
        document structure. With static typing, the C++ compiler
        can pin-point the places in the application code that need to be
        changed.</li>

   <li><b>Efficiency.</b> The generated parser skeletons combine
       data extraction, validation, and even dispatching in a single
       step. This makes them much more efficient than traditional
       architectures with separate stages for validation and data
       extraction/dispatch.</li>
  </ul>

  <!-- Hello World Parser -->


  <h1><a name="2">2 Hello World Example</a></h1>

  <p>In this chapter we will examine how to parse a very simple XML
     document using the XSD-generated C++/Parser skeletons.
     The code presented in this chapter is based on the <code>hello</code>
     example which can be found in the <code>examples/cxx/parser/</code>
     directory of the XSD distribution.</p>

  <h2><a name="2.1">2.1 Writing XML Document and Schema</a></h2>

  <p>First, we need to get an idea about the structure
     of the XML documents we are going to process. Our
     <code>hello.xml</code>, for example, could look like this:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;hello>

  &lt;greeting>Hello&lt;/greeting>

  &lt;name>sun&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>moon&lt;/name>
  &lt;name>world&lt;/name>

&lt;/hello>
  </pre>

  <p>Then we can write a description of the above XML in the
     XML Schema language and save it into <code>hello.xsd</code>:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

  &lt;xs:complexType name="hello">
    &lt;xs:sequence>
      &lt;xs:element name="greeting" type="xs:string"/>
      &lt;xs:element name="name" type="xs:string" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    &lt;/xs:sequence>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:element name="hello" type="hello"/>

&lt;/xs:schema>
  </pre>

  <p>Even if you are not familiar with XML Schema, it
     should be easy to connect declarations in <code>hello.xsd</code>
     to elements in <code>hello.xml</code>. The <code>hello</code> type
     is defined as a sequence of the nested <code>greeting</code> and
     <code>name</code> elements. Note that the term sequence in XML
     Schema means that elements should appear in a particular order
     as opposed to appearing multiple times. The <code>name</code>
     element has its <code>maxOccurs</code> property set to
     <code>unbounded</code> which means it can appear multiple times
     in an XML document. Finally, the globally-defined <code>hello</code>
     element prescribes the root element for our vocabulary. For an
     easily-approachable introduction to XML Schema refer to
     <a href="http://www.w3.org/TR/xmlschema-0/">XML Schema Part 0:
     Primer</a>.</p>

  <p>The above schema is a specification of our XML vocabulary; it tells
     everybody what valid documents of our XML-based language should look
     like. The next step is to compile this schema to generate
     the object model and parsing functions.</p>

  <h2><a name="2.2">2.2 Translating Schema to C++</a></h2>

  <p>Now we are ready to translate our <code>hello.xsd</code> to C++ parser
     skeletons. To do this we invoke the XSD compiler from a terminal
     (UNIX) or a command prompt (Windows):
  </p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ xsd cxx-parser --xml-parser expat hello.xsd
  </pre>

  <p>The <code>--xml-parser</code> option indicates that we want to
     use Expat as the underlying XML parser (see <a href="#5.3">Section
     5.3, "Underlying XML Parser"</a>). The XSD compiler produces two
     C++ files: <code>hello-pskel.hxx</code> and <code>hello-pskel.cxx</code>.
     The following code fragment is taken from <code>hello-pskel.hxx</code>;
     it should give you an idea about what gets generated:
  </p>

  <pre class="c++">
class hello_pskel
{
public:
  // Parser callbacks. Override them in your implementation.
  //
  virtual void
  pre ();

  virtual void
  greeting (const std::string&amp;);

  virtual void
  name (const std::string&amp;);

  virtual void
  post_hello ();

  // Parser construction API.
  //
  void
  greeting_parser (xml_schema::string_pskel&amp;);

  void
  name_parser (xml_schema::string_pskel&amp;);

  void
  parsers (xml_schema::string_pskel&amp; /* greeting */,
           xml_schema::string_pskel&amp; /* name */);

private:
  ...
};
  </pre>

  <p>The first four member functions shown above are called parser
     callbacks. You would normally override them in your implementation
     of the parser to do something useful. Let's go through all of
     them one by one.</p>

  <p>The <code>pre()</code> function is an initialization callback. It is
    called when a new element of type <code>hello</code> is about
    to be parsed. You would normally use this function to allocate a new
    instance of the resulting type or clear accumulators that are used
    to gather information during parsing. The default implementation
    of this function does nothing.</p>

  <p>The <code>post_hello()</code> function is a finalization callback. Its
     name is constructed by adding the parser skeleton name to the
     <code>post_</code> prefix. The finalization callback is called when
     parsing of the element is complete and the result, if any, should
     be returned. Note that in our case the return type of
     <code>post_hello()</code> is <code>void</code> which means there
     is nothing to return. More on parser return types later.
  </p>

  <p>You may be wondering why the finalization callback is called
     <code>post_hello()</code> instead of <code>post()</code> just
     like <code>pre()</code>. The reason for this is that
     finalization callbacks can have different return types and
     result in function signature clashes across inheritance
     hierarchies. To prevent this the signatures of finalization
     callbacks are made unique by adding the type name to their names.</p>

  <p>The <code>greeting()</code> and <code>name()</code> functions are
     called when the <code>greeting</code> and <code>name</code> elements
     have been parsed, respectively. Their arguments are of type
     <code>std::string</code> and contain the data extracted from XML.</p>

  <p>The last three functions are for connecting parsers to each other.
     For example, there is a predefined parser for built-in XML Schema type
     <code>string</code> in the XSD runtime. We will be using
     it to parse the contents of <code>greeting</code> and
     <code>name</code> elements, as shown in the next section.</p>

  <h2><a name="2.3">2.3 Implementing Application Logic</a></h2>

  <p>At this point we have all the parts we need to do something useful
     with the information stored in our XML document. The first step is
     to implement the parser:
  </p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;iostream>
#include "hello-pskel.hxx"

class hello_pimpl: public hello_pskel
{
public:
  virtual void
  greeting (const std::string&amp; g)
  {
    greeting_ = g;
  }

  virtual void
  name (const std::string&amp; n)
  {
    std::cout &lt;&lt; greeting_ &lt;&lt; ", " &lt;&lt; n &lt;&lt; "!" &lt;&lt; std::endl;
  }

private:
  std::string greeting_;
};
  </pre>

  <p>We left both <code>pre()</code> and <code>post_hello()</code> with the
     default implementations; we don't have anything to initialize or
     return. The rest is pretty straightforward: we store the greeting
     in a member variable and later, when parsing names, use it to
     say hello.</p>

  <p>An observant reader my ask what happens if the <code>name</code>
     element comes before <code>greeting</code>? Don't we need to
     make sure <code>greeting_</code> was initialized and report
     an error otherwise? The answer is no, we don't have to do
     any of this. The <code>hello_pskel</code> parser skeleton
     performs validation of XML according to the schema from which
     it was generated. As a result, it will check the order
     of the <code>greeting</code> and <code>name</code> elements
     and report an error if it is violated.</p>

  <p>Now it is time to put this parser implementation to work:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
using namespace std;

int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  try
  {
    // Construct the parser.
    //
    xml_schema::string_pimpl string_p;
    hello_pimpl hello_p;

    hello_p.greeting_parser (string_p);
    hello_p.name_parser (string_p);

    // Parse the XML instance.
    //
    xml_schema::document doc_p (hello_p, "hello");

    hello_p.pre ();
    doc_p.parse (argv[1]);
    hello_p.post_hello ();
  }
  catch (const xml_schema::exception&amp; e)
  {
    cerr &lt;&lt; e &lt;&lt; endl;
    return 1;
  }
}
  </pre>

  <p>The first part of this code snippet instantiates individual parsers
     and assembles them into a complete vocabulary parser.
     <code>xml_schema::string_pimpl</code> is an implementation of a parser
     for built-in XML Schema type <code>string</code>. It is provided by
     the XSD runtime along with parsers for other built-in types (for
     more information on the built-in parsers see <a href="#6">Chapter 6,
     "Built-In XML Schema Type Parsers"</a>). We use <code>string_pimpl</code>
     to parse the <code>greeting</code> and <code>name</code> elements as
     indicated by the calls to <code>greeting_parser()</code> and
     <code>name_parser()</code>.
  </p>

  <p>Then we instantiate a document parser (<code>doc_p</code>). The
     first argument to its constructor is the parser for
     the root element (<code>hello_p</code> in our case). The
     second argument is the root element name.
   </p>

  <p>The final piece is the calls to <code>pre()</code>, <code>parse()</code>,
     and <code>post_hello()</code>. The call to <code>parse()</code>
     perform the actual XML parsing while the calls to <code>pre()</code> and
     <code>post_hello()</code> make sure that the parser for the root
     element can perform proper initialization and cleanup.</p>

  <p>While our parser implementation and test driver are pretty small and
     easy to write by hand, for bigger XML vocabularies it can be a
     substantial effort. To help with this task XSD can automatically
     generate sample parser implementations and a test driver from your
     schemas. You can request the generation of a sample implementation with
     empty function bodies by specifying the <code>--generate-noop-impl</code>
     option. Or you can generate a sample implementation that prints the
     data store in XML by using the <code>--generate-print-impl</code>
     option. To request the generation of a test driver you can use the
     <code>--generate-test-driver</code> option. For more information
     on these options refer to the
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
     Compiler Command Line Manual</a>. The <code>'generated'</code> example
     in the XSD distribution shows the sample implementation generation
     feature in action.</p>


  <h2><a name="2.4">2.4 Compiling and Running</a></h2>

  <p>After saving all the parts from the previous section in
     <code>driver.cxx</code>, we are ready to compile our first
     application and run it on the test XML document. On a UNIX
     system this can be done with the following commands:
  </p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ c++ -I.../libxsd -c driver.cxx hello-pskel.cxx
$ c++ -o driver driver.o hello-pskel.o -lexpat
$ ./driver hello.xml
Hello, sun!
Hello, moon!
Hello, world!
  </pre>

  <p>Here <code>.../libxsd</code> represents the path to the
     <code>libxsd</code> directory in the XSD distribution.
     We can also test the error handling. To test XML well-formedness
     checking, we can try to parse <code>hello-pskel.hxx</code>:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ ./driver hello-pskel.hxx
hello-pskel.hxx:1:0: not well-formed (invalid token)
  </pre>

  <p>We can also try to parse a valid XML but not from our
     vocabulary, for example <code>hello.xsd</code>:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ ./driver hello.xsd
hello.xsd:2:0: expected element 'hello' instead of
'http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema#schema'
  </pre>


  <!-- Chapater 3 -->


  <h1><a name="3">3 Parser Skeletons</a></h1>

  <p>As we have seen in the previous chapter, the XSD compiler generates
     a parser skeleton class for each type defined in XML Schema. In
     this chapter we will take a closer look at different functions
     that comprise a parser skeleton as well as the way to connect
     our implementations of these parser skeletons to create a complete
     parser.</p>

  <p>In this and subsequent chapters we will use the following schema
     that describes a collection of person records. We save it in
     <code>people.xsd</code>:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

  &lt;xs:simpleType name="gender">
    &lt;xs:restriction base="xs:string">
      &lt;xs:enumeration value="male"/>
      &lt;xs:enumeration value="female"/>
    &lt;/xs:restriction>
  &lt;/xs:simpleType>

  &lt;xs:complexType name="person">
    &lt;xs:sequence>
      &lt;xs:element name="first-name" type="xs:string"/>
      &lt;xs:element name="last-name" type="xs:string"/>
      &lt;xs:element name="gender" type="gender"/>
      &lt;xs:element name="age" type="xs:short"/>
    &lt;/xs:sequence>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:complexType name="people">
    &lt;xs:sequence>
      &lt;xs:element name="person" type="person" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    &lt;/xs:sequence>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:element name="people" type="people"/>

&lt;/xs:schema>
  </pre>

  <p>A sample XML instance to go along with this schema is saved
     in <code>people.xml</code>:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;people>
  &lt;person>
    &lt;first-name>John&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>male&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>32&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>
  &lt;person>
    &lt;first-name>Jane&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>female&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>28&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>
&lt;/people>
  </pre>

  <p>Compiling <code>people.xsd</code> with the XSD compiler results
     in three parser skeletons being generated: <code>gender_pskel</code>,
     <code>person_pskel</code>, and <code>people_pskel</code>. We are going
     to examine and implement each of them in the subsequent sections.</p>

  <h2><a name="3.1">3.1 Implementing the Gender Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The generated <code>gender_pskel</code> parser skeleton looks like
     this:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class gender_pskel: public virtual xml_schema::string_pskel
{
public:
  // Parser callbacks. Override them in your implementation.
  //
  virtual void
  pre ();

  virtual void
  post_gender ();
};
  </pre>

  <p>Notice that <code>gender_pskel</code> inherits from
     <code>xml_schema::string_skel</code> which is a parser skeleton
     for built-in XML Schema type <code>string</code> and is
     predefined in the XSD runtime library. This is an example
     of the general rule that parser skeletons follow: if a type
     in XML Schema inherits from another then there will be an
     equivalent inheritance between the corresponding parser
     skeleton classes.</p>

  <p>The <code>pre()</code> and <code>post_gender()</code> callbacks
     should look familiar from the previous chapter. Let's now
     implement the parser. Our implementation will simply print
     the gender to <code>cout</code>:</p>


  <pre class="c++">
class gender_pimpl: public gender_pskel,
                    public xml_schema::string_pimpl
{
public:
  virtual void
  post_gender ()
  {
    std::string s = post_string ();
    cout &lt;&lt; "gender: " &lt;&lt; s &lt;&lt; endl;
  }
};
  </pre>

  <p>While the code is quite short, there is a lot going on. First,
     notice that we are inheriting from <code>gender_pskel</code> <em>and</em>
     from <code>xml_schema::string_pimpl</code>. We've encountered
     <code>xml_schema::string_pimpl</code> already; it is an
     implementation of the <code>xml_schema::string_pskel</code> parser
     skeleton for built-in XML Schema type <code>string</code>.</p>

  <p>This is another common theme in the C++/Parser programming model:
     reusing implementations of the base parsers in the derived ones with
     the C++ mixin idiom. In our case, <code>string_pimpl</code> will
     do all the dirty work of extracting the data and we can just get
     it at the end with the call to <code>post_string()</code>.</p>

  <p>In case you are curious, here is what
     <code>xml_schema::string_pskel</code> and
     <code>xml_schema::string_pimpl</code> look like:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class string_pskel: public simple_content
  {
  public:
    virtual std::string
    post_string () = 0;
  };

  class string_pimpl: public virtual string_pskel
  {
  public:
    virtual void
    _pre ();

    virtual void
    _characters (const xml_schema::ro_string&amp;);

    virtual std::string
    post_string ();

  protected:
    std::string str_;
  };
}
  </pre>

  <p>There are three new pieces in this code that we haven't seen yet.
     They are the <code>simple_content</code> class as well as
     the <code>_pre()</code> and <code>_characters()</code> functions.
     The <code>simple_content</code> class is defined in the XSD
     runtime and is a base class for all parser skeletons that conform
     to the simple content model in XML Schema. Types with the
     simple content model cannot have nested elements&mdash;only text
     and attributes. There is also the <code>complex_content</code>
     class which corresponds to the complex content mode (types with
     nested elements, for example, <code>person</code> from
     <code>people.xsd</code>).</p>

  <p>The <code>_pre()</code> function is a parser callback. Remember we
     talked about the <code>pre()</code> and <code>post_*()</code> callbacks
     in the previous chapter? There are actually two more callbacks
     with similar roles: <code>_pre()</code> and <code>_post ()</code>.
     As a result, each parser skeleton has four special callbacks:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
  virtual void
  pre ();

  virtual void
  _pre ();

  virtual void
  _post ();

  virtual void
  post_name ();
  </pre>

  <p><code>pre()</code> and <code>_pre()</code> are initialization
     callbacks. They get called in that order before a new instance of the type
     is about to be parsed. The difference between <code>pre()</code> and
     <code>_pre()</code> is conventional: <code>pre()</code> can
     be completely overridden by a derived parser. The derived
     parser can also override <code>_pre()</code> but has to always call
     the original version. This allows you to partition initialization
     into customizable and required parts.</p>

  <p>Similarly, <code>_post()</code> and <code>post_name()</code> are
     finalization callbacks with exactly the same semantics:
    <code>post_name()</code> can be completely overridden by the derived
     parser while the original <code>_post()</code> should always be called.
  </p>

  <p>The final bit we need to discuss in this section is the
     <code>_characters()</code> function. As you might have guessed, it
     is also a callback. A low-level one that delivers raw character content
     for the type being parsed. You will seldom need to use this callback
     directly. Using implementations for the built-in parsers provided by
     the XSD runtime is usually a simpler and more convenient
     alternative.</p>

  <p>At this point you might be wondering why some <code>post_*()</code>
     callbacks, for example <code>post_string()</code>, return some data
     while others, for example <code>post_gender()</code>, have
     <code>void</code> as a return type. This is a valid concern
     and it will be addressed in the next chapter.</p>

  <h2><a name="3.2">3.2 Implementing the Person Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The generated <code>person_pskel</code> parser skeleton looks like
     this:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class person_pskel: public xml_schema::complex_content
{
public:
  // Parser callbacks. Override them in your implementation.
  //
  virtual void
  pre ();

  virtual void
  first_name (const std::string&amp;);

  virtual void
  last_name (const std::string&amp;);

  virtual void
  gender ();

  virtual void
  age (short);

  virtual void
  post_person ();

  // Parser construction API.
  //
  void
  first_name_parser (xml_schema::string_pskel&amp;);

  void
  last_name_parser (xml_schema::string_pskel&amp;);

  void
  gender_parser (gender_pskel&amp;);

  void
  age_parser (xml_schema::short_pskel&amp;);

  void
  parsers (xml_schema::string_pskel&amp; /* first-name */,
           xml_schema::string_pskel&amp; /* last-name */,
           gender_pskel&amp;             /* gender */,
           xml_schema::short_pskel&amp;  /* age */);
};
  </pre>


  <p>As you can see, we have a parser callback for each of the nested
     elements found in the <code>person</code> XML Schema type.
     The implementation of this parser is straightforward:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class person_pimpl: public person_pskel
{
public:
  virtual void
  first_name (const std::string&amp; n)
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "first: " &lt;&lt; f &lt;&lt; endl;
  }

  virtual void
  last_name (const std::string&amp; l)
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "last: " &lt;&lt; l &lt;&lt; endl;
  }

  virtual void
  age (short a)
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "age: " &lt;&lt; a &lt;&lt; endl;
  }
};
  </pre>

  <p>Notice that we didn't override the <code>gender()</code> callback
     because all the printing is done by <code>gender_pimpl</code>.</p>


  <h2><a name="3.3">3.3 Implementing the People Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The generated <code>people_pskel</code> parser skeleton looks like
     this:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class people_pskel: public xml_schema::complex_content
{
public:
  // Parser callbacks. Override them in your implementation.
  //
  virtual void
  pre ();

  virtual void
  person ();

  virtual void
  post_people ();

  // Parser construction API.
  //
  void
  person_parser (person_pskel&amp;);

  void
  parsers (person_pskel&amp; /* person */);
};
  </pre>

  <p>The <code>person()</code> callback will be called after parsing each
     <code>person</code> element. While <code>person_pimpl</code> does
     all the printing, one useful thing we can do in this callback is to
     print an extra newline after each person record so that our
     output is more readable:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class people_pimpl: public people_pskel
{
public:
  virtual void
  person ()
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; endl;
  }
};
  </pre>

  <p>Now it is time to put everything together.</p>


  <h2><a name="3.4">3.4 Connecting the Parsers Together</a></h2>

  <p>At this point we have all the individual parsers implemented
     and can proceed to assemble them into a complete parser
     for our XML vocabulary. The first step is to instantiate
     all the individual parsers that we will need:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
xml_schema::short_pimpl short_p;
xml_schema::string_pimpl string_p;

gender_pimpl gender_p;
person_pimpl person_p;
people_pimpl people_p;
  </pre>

  <p>Notice that our schema uses two built-in XML Schema types:
     <code>string</code> for the <code>first-name</code> and
     <code>last-name</code> elements as well as <code>short</code>
     for <code>age</code>. We will use predefined parsers that
     come with the XSD runtime to handle these types. The next
     step is to connect all the individual parsers. We do this
     with the help of functions defined in the parser
     skeletons and marked with the "Parser Construction API"
     comment. One way to do it is to connect each individual
     parser by calling the <code>*_parser()</code> functions:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
person_p.first_name_parser (string_p);
person_p.last_name_parser (string_p);
person_p.gender_parser (gender_p);
person_p.age_parser (short_p);

people_p.person_parser (person_p);
  </pre>

  <p>You might be wondering what happens if you do not provide
     a parser by not calling one of the <code>*_parser()</code> functions.
     In that case the corresponding XML content will be skipped,
     including validation. This is an efficient way to ignore parts
     of the document that you are not interested in.</p>


  <p>An alternative, shorter, way to connect the parsers is by using
     the <code>parsers()</code> functions which connects all the parsers
     for a given type at once:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
person_p.parsers (string_p, string_p, gender_p, short_p);
people_p.parsers (person_p);
  </pre>

  <p>The following figure illustrates the resulting connections. Notice
     the correspondence between return types of the <code>post_*()</code>
     functions and argument types of element callbacks that are connected
     by the arrows.</p>

  <!-- align=center is needed for html2ps -->
  <div class="img" align="center"><img src="figure-1.png"/></div>

  <p>The last step is the construction of the document parser and
     invocation of the complete parser on our sample XML instance:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
xml_schema::document doc_p (people_p, "people");

people_p.pre ();
doc_p.parse ("people.xml");
people_p.post_people ();
  </pre>

  <p>Let's consider <code>xml_schema::document</code> in
     more detail. While the exact definition of this class
     varies depending on the underlying parser selected,
     here is the common part:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class document
  {
  public:
    document (xml_schema::parser_base&amp;,
              const std::string&amp; root_element_name,
              bool polymorphic = false);

    document (xml_schema::parser_base&amp;,
              const std::string&amp; root_element_namespace,
              const std::string&amp; root_element_name,
              bool polymorphic = false);

    void
    parse (const std::string&amp; file);

    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;);

    ...

  };
}
  </pre>

   <p><code>xml_schema::document</code> is a root parser for
     the vocabulary. The first argument to its constructors is the
     parser for the type of the root element (<code>people_impl</code>
     in our case). Because a type parser is only concerned with
     the element's content and not with the element's name, we need
     to specify the root element's name somewhere. That's
     what is passed as the second and third arguments to the
     <code>document</code>'s constructors.</p>

   <p>There are also two overloaded <code>parse()</code> functions
      defined in the <code>document</code> class (there are actually
      more but the others are specific to the underlying XML parser).
      The first version parses a local file identified by a name. The
      second version reads the data from an input stream. For more
      information on the <code>xml_schema::document</code> class
      refer to <a href="#7">Chapter 7, "Document Parser and Error
      Handling"</a>.</p>

   <p>Let's now consider a step-by-step list of actions that happen
      as we parse through <code>people.xml</code>. The content of
      <code>people.xml</code> is repeated below for convenience.</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;?xml version="1.0"?>
&lt;people>
  &lt;person>
    &lt;first-name>John&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>male&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>32&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>
  &lt;person>
    &lt;first-name>Jane&lt;/first-name>
    &lt;last-name>Doe&lt;/last-name>
    &lt;gender>female&lt;/gender>
    &lt;age>28&lt;/age>
  &lt;/person>
&lt;/people>
  </pre>


   <ol class="steps">
     <li><code>people_p.pre()</code> is called from
         <code>main()</code>. We did not provide any implementation
         for this callback so this call is a no-op.</li>

     <li><code>doc_p.parse("people.xml")</code> is called from
         <code>main()</code>. The parser opens the file and starts
         parsing its content.</li>

     <li>The parser encounters the root element. <code>doc_p</code>
         verifies that the root element is correct and calls
         <code>_pre()</code> on <code>people_p</code> which is also
         a no-op. Parsing is now delegated to <code>people_p</code>.</li>

     <li>The parser encounters the <code>person</code> element.
         <code>people_p</code> determines that <code>person_p</code>
         is responsible for parsing this element. <code>pre()</code>
         and <code>_pre()</code> callbacks are called on <code>person_p</code>.
         Parsing is now delegated to <code>person_p</code>.</li>

     <li>The parser encounters the <code>first-name</code> element.
         <code>person_p</code> determines that <code>string_p</code>
         is responsible for parsing this element. <code>pre()</code>
         and <code>_pre()</code> callbacks are called on <code>string_p</code>.
         Parsing is now delegated to <code>string_p</code>.</li>

     <li>The parser encounters character content consisting of
         <code>"John"</code>. The <code>_characters()</code> callback is
         called on <code>string_p</code>.</li>

     <li>The parser encounters the end of <code>first-name</code>
         element. The <code>_post()</code> and <code>post_string()</code>
         callbacks are called on <code>string_p</code>. The
         <code>first_name()</code> callback is called on <code>person_p</code>
         with the return value of <code>post_string()</code>. The
         <code>first_name()</code> implementation prints
         <code>"first: John"</code> to <code>cout</code>.
         Parsing is now returned to <code>person_p</code>.</li>

     <li>Steps analogous to 5-7 are performed for the <code>last-name</code>,
         <code>gender</code>, and <code>age</code> elements.</li>

     <li>The parser encounters the end of <code>person</code>
         element. The <code>_post()</code> and <code>post_person()</code>
         callbacks are called on <code>person_p</code>. The
         <code>person()</code> callback is called on <code>people_p</code>.
         The <code>person()</code> implementation prints a new line
         to <code>cout</code>. Parsing is now returned to
         <code>people_p</code>.</li>

     <li>Steps 4-9 are performed for the second <code>person</code>
         element.</li>

     <li>The parser encounters the end of <code>people</code>
         element. The <code>_post()</code> callback is called on
         <code>people_p</code>. The <code>doc_p.parse("people.xml")</code>
         call returns to <code>main()</code>.</li>

     <li><code>people_p.post_people()</code> is called from
         <code>main()</code> which is a no-op.</li>

   </ol>


  <!-- Chpater 4 -->


  <h1><a name="4">4 Type Maps</a></h1>

  <p>There are many useful things you can do inside parser callbacks as they
     are right now. There are, however, times when you want to propagate
     some information from one parser to another or to the caller of the
     parser. One common task that would greatly benefit from such a
     possibility is building a tree-like in-memory object model of the
     data stored in XML. During execution, each individual sub-parser
     would create a sub-tree and return it to its <em>parent</em> parser
     which can then incorporate this sub-tree into the whole tree.</p>

  <p>In this chapter we will discuss the mechanisms offered by the
     C++/Parser mapping for returning information from individual
     parsers and see how to use them to build an object model
     of our people vocabulary.</p>

  <h2><a name="4.1">4.1 Object Model</a></h2>

  <p>An object model for our person record example could
     look like this (saved in the <code>people.hxx</code> file):</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;string>
#include &lt;vector>

enum gender
{
  male,
  female
};

class person
{
public:
  person (const std::string&amp; first,
          const std::string&amp; last,
          ::gender gender,
          short age)
    : first_ (first), last_ (last),
      gender_ (gender), age_ (age)
  {
  }

  const std::string&amp;
  first () const
  {
    return first_;
  }

  const std::string&amp;
  last () const
  {
    return last_;
  }

  ::gender
  gender () const
  {
    return gender_;
  }

  short
  age () const
  {
    return age_;
  }

private:
  std::string first_;
  std::string last_;
  ::gender gender_;
  short age_;
};

typedef std::vector&lt;person> people;
  </pre>

  <p>While it is clear which parser is responsible for which part of
     the object model, it is not exactly clear how, for
     example, <code>gender_pimpl</code> will deliver <code>gender</code>
     to <code>person_pimpl</code>. You might have noticed that
     <code>string_pimpl</code> manages to deliver its value to the
     <code>first_name()</code> callback of <code>person_pimpl</code>. Let's
     see how we can utilize the same mechanism to propagate our
     own data.</p>

  <p>There is a way to tell the XSD compiler that you want to
     exchange data between parsers. More precisely, for each
     type defined in XML Schema, you can tell the compiler two things.
     First, the return type of the <code>post_*()</code> callback
     in the parser skeleton generated for this type. And, second,
     the argument type for callbacks corresponding to elements and
     attributes of this type. For example, for XML Schema type
     <code>gender</code> we can specify the return type for
     <code>post_gender()</code> in the <code>gender_pskel</code>
     skeleton and the argument type for the <code>gender()</code> callback
     in the <code>person_pskel</code> skeleton. As you might have guessed,
     the generated code will then pass the return value from the
     <code>post_*()</code> callback as an argument to the element or
     attribute callback.</p>

  <p>The way to tell the XSD compiler about these XML Schema to
     C++ mappings is with type map files. Here is a simple type
     map for the <code>gender</code> type from the previous paragraph:</p>

  <pre class="type-map">
include "people.hxx";
gender ::gender ::gender;
  </pre>

  <p>The first line indicates that the generated code must include
     <code>people.hxx</code> in order to get the definition for the
     <code>gender</code> type. The second line specifies that both
     argument and return types for the <code>gender</code>
     XML Schema type should be the <code>::gender</code> C++ enum
     (we use fully-qualified C++ names to avoid name clashes).
     The next section will describe the type map format in detail.
     We save this type map in <code>people.map</code> and
     then translate our schemas with the <code>--type-map</code>
     option to let the XSD compiler know about our type map:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ xsd cxx-parser --type-map people.map people.xsd
  </pre>

  <p>If we now look at the generated <code>people-pskel.hxx</code>,
     we will see the following changes in the <code>gender_pskel</code> and
     <code>person_pskel</code> skeletons:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include "people.hxx"

class gender_pskel: public virtual xml_schema::string_pskel
{
  virtual ::gender
  post_gender () = 0;

  ...
};

class person_pskel: public xml_schema::complex_content
{
  virtual void
  gender (::gender);

  ...
};
  </pre>

  <p>Notice that <code>#include "people.hxx"</code> was added to
     the generated header file from the type map to provide the
     definition for the <code>gender</code> enum.</p>

  <h2><a name="4.2">4.2 Type Map File Format</a></h2>

  <p>Type map files are used to define a mapping between XML Schema
     and C++ types. The compiler uses this information
     to determine return types of <code>post_*()</code>
     callbacks in parser skeletons corresponding to XML Schema
     types as well as argument types for callbacks corresponding
     to elements and attributes of these types.</p>

  <p>The compiler has a set of predefined mapping rules that map
     the built-in XML Schema types to suitable C++ types (discussed
     below) and all other types to <code>void</code>.
     By providing your own type maps you can override these predefined
     rules. The format of the type map file is presented below:
  </p>

  <pre class="type-map">
namespace &lt;schema-namespace> [&lt;cxx-namespace>]
{
  (include &lt;file-name>;)*
  ([type] &lt;schema-type> &lt;cxx-ret-type> [&lt;cxx-arg-type>];)*
}
  </pre>

  <p>Both <code><i>&lt;schema-namespace></i></code> and
     <code><i>&lt;schema-type></i></code> are regex patterns while
     <code><i>&lt;cxx-namespace></i></code>,
     <code><i>&lt;cxx-ret-type></i></code>, and
     <code><i>&lt;cxx-arg-type></i></code> are regex pattern
     substitutions. All names can be optionally enclosed in
     <code>" "</code>, for example, to include white-spaces.</p>

  <p><code><i>&lt;schema-namespace></i></code> determines XML
     Schema namespace. Optional <code><i>&lt;cxx-namespace></i></code>
     is prefixed to every C++ type name in this namespace declaration.
     <code><i>&lt;cxx-ret-type></i></code> is a C++ type name that is
     used as a return type for the <code>post_*()</code> callback.
     Optional <code><i>&lt;cxx-arg-type></i></code> is an argument
     type for callbacks corresponding to elements and attributes
     of this type. If <code><i>&lt;cxx-arg-type></i></code> is not
     specified, it defaults to <code><i>&lt;cxx-ret-type></i></code>
     if <code><i>&lt;cxx-ret-type></i></code> ends with <code>*</code> or
     <code>&amp;</code> (that is, it is a pointer or a reference) and
     <code>const&nbsp;<i>&lt;cxx-ret-type></i>&amp;</code>
     otherwise.
     <code><i>&lt;file-name></i></code> is a file name either in the
     <code>" "</code> or <code>&lt; ></code> format
     and is added with the <code>#include</code> directive to
     the generated code.</p>

  <p>The <code><b>#</b></code> character starts a comment that ends
     with a new line or end of file. To specify a name that contains
     <code><b>#</b></code> enclose it in <code><b>" "</b></code>.
     For example:</p>

  <pre>
namespace http://www.example.com/xmlns/my my
{
  include "my.hxx";

  # Pass apples by value.
  #
  apple apple;

  # Pass oranges as pointers.
  #
  orange orange_t*;
}
  </pre>

  <p>In the example above, for the
     <code>http://www.example.com/xmlns/my#orange</code>
     XML Schema type, the <code>my::orange_t*</code> C++ type will
     be used as both return and argument types.</p>

  <p>Several namespace declarations can be specified in a single
     file. The namespace declaration can also be completely
     omitted to map types in a schema without a namespace. For
     instance:</p>

  <pre class="type-map">
include "my.hxx";
apple apple;

namespace http://www.example.com/xmlns/my
{
  orange "const orange_t*";
}
  </pre>

  <p>The compiler has a number of predefined mapping rules for
     the built-in XML Schema types which can be presented as the
     following map files. The string-based XML Schema types are
     mapped to either <code>std::string</code> or
     <code>std::wstring</code> depending on the character type
     selected (see <a href="#5.2"> Section 5.2, "Character Type and
     Encoding"</a> for more information). The binary XML Schema
     types are mapped to either <code>std::auto_ptr&lt;xml_schema::buffer></code>
     or <code>std::unique_ptr&lt;xml_schema::buffer></code>
     depending on the C++ standard selected (C++98 or C++11,
     respectively; refer to the <code>--std</code> XSD compiler
     command line option for details).</p>

  <pre class="type-map">
namespace http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema
{
  boolean bool bool;

  byte "signed char" "signed char";
  unsignedByte "unsigned char" "unsigned char";

  short short short;
  unsignedShort "unsigned short" "unsigned short";

  int int int;
  unsignedInt "unsigned int" "unsigned int";

  long "long long" "long long";
  unsignedLong "unsigned long long" "unsigned long long";

  integer "long long" "long long";

  negativeInteger "long long" "long long";
  nonPositiveInteger "long long" "long long";

  positiveInteger "unsigned long long" "unsigned long long";
  nonNegativeInteger "unsigned long long" "unsigned long long";

  float float float;
  double double double;
  decimal double double;

  string std::string;
  normalizedString std::string;
  token std::string;
  Name std::string;
  NMTOKEN std::string;
  NCName std::string;
  ID std::string;
  IDREF std::string;
  language std::string;
  anyURI std::string;

  NMTOKENS xml_schema::string_sequence;
  IDREFS xml_schema::string_sequence;

  QName xml_schema::qname;

  base64Binary std::[auto|unique]_ptr&lt;xml_schema::buffer>
               std::[auto|unique]_ptr&lt;xml_schema::buffer>;
  hexBinary std::[auto|unique]_ptr&lt;xml_schema::buffer>
            std::[auto|unique]_ptr&lt;xml_schema::buffer>;

  date xml_schema::date;
  dateTime xml_schema::date_time;
  duration xml_schema::duration;
  gDay xml_schema::gday;
  gMonth xml_schema::gmonth;
  gMonthDay xml_schema::gmonth_day;
  gYear xml_schema::gyear;
  gYearMonth xml_schema::gyear_month;
  time xml_schema::time;
}
  </pre>

  <p>For more information about the mapping of the built-in XML Schema types
     to C++ types refer to <a href="#6">Chapter 6, "Built-In XML Schema Type
     Parsers"</a>. The last predefined rule maps anything that wasn't
     mapped by previous rules to <code>void</code>:</p>

  <pre class="type-map">
namespace .*
{
  .* void void;
}
  </pre>


  <p>When you provide your own type maps with the
     <code>--type-map</code> option, they are evaluated first. This
     allows you to selectively override any of the predefined rules.
     Note also that if you change the mapping
     of a built-in XML Schema type then it becomes your responsibility
     to provide the corresponding parser skeleton and implementation
     in the <code>xml_schema</code> namespace. You can include the
     custom definitions into the generated header file using the
     <code>--hxx-prologue-*</code> options.</p>

  <h2><a name="4.3">4.3 Parser Implementations</a></h2>

  <p>With the knowledge from the previous section, we can proceed
     with creating a type map that maps types in the <code>people.xsd</code>
     schema to our object model classes in
     <code>people.hxx</code>. In fact, we already have the beginning
     of our type map file in <code>people.map</code>. Let's extend
     it with the rest of the types:</p>

  <pre class="type-map">
include "people.hxx";

gender ::gender ::gender;
person ::person;
people ::people;
  </pre>

  <p>There are a few things to note about this type map. We did not
     provide the argument types for <code>person</code> and
     <code>people</code> because the default constant reference is
     exactly what we need. We also did not provide any mappings
     for built-in XML Schema types <code>string</code> and
     <code>short</code> because they are handled by the predefined
     rules and we are happy with the result. Note also that
     all C++ types are fully qualified. This is done to avoid
     potential name conflicts in the generated code. Now we can
     recompile our schema and move on to implementing the parsers:</p>

  <pre class="terminal">
$ xsd cxx-parser --xml-parser expat --type-map people.map people.xsd
  </pre>

  <p>Here is the implementation of our three parsers in full. One
     way to save typing when implementing your own parsers is
     to open the generated code and copy the signatures of parser
     callbacks into your code. Or you could always auto generate the
     sample implementations and fill them with your code.</p>


  <pre class="c++">
#include "people-pskel.hxx"

class gender_pimpl: public gender_pskel,
                    public xml_schema::string_pimpl
{
public:
  virtual ::gender
  post_gender ()
  {
    return post_string () == "male" ? male : female;
  }
};

class person_pimpl: public person_pskel
{
public:
  virtual void
  first_name (const std::string&amp; f)
  {
    first_ = f;
  }

  virtual void
  last_name (const std::string&amp; l)
  {
    last_ = l;
  }

  virtual void
  gender (::gender g)
  {
    gender_ = g;
  }

  virtual void
  age (short a)
  {
    age_ = a;
  }

  virtual ::person
  post_person ()
  {
    return ::person (first_, last_, gender_, age_);
  }

private:
  std::string first_;
  std::string last_;
  ::gender gender_;
  short age_;
};

class people_pimpl: public people_pskel
{
public:
  virtual void
  person (const ::person&amp; p)
  {
    people_.push_back (p);
  }

  virtual ::people
  post_people ()
  {
    ::people r;
    r.swap (people_);
    return r;
  }

private:
  ::people people_;
};
  </pre>

  <p>This code fragment should look familiar by now. Just note that
     all the <code>post_*()</code> callbacks now have return types instead
     of <code>void</code>. Here is the implementation of the test
     driver for this example:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;iostream>

using namespace std;

int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  // Construct the parser.
  //
  xml_schema::short_pimpl short_p;
  xml_schema::string_pimpl string_p;

  gender_pimpl gender_p;
  person_pimpl person_p;
  people_pimpl people_p;

  person_p.parsers (string_p, string_p, gender_p, short_p);
  people_p.parsers (person_p);

  // Parse the document to obtain the object model.
  //
  xml_schema::document doc_p (people_p, "people");

  people_p.pre ();
  doc_p.parse (argv[1]);
  people ppl = people_p.post_people ();

  // Print the object model.
  //
  for (people::iterator i (ppl.begin ()); i != ppl.end (); ++i)
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "first:  " &lt;&lt; i->first () &lt;&lt; endl
         &lt;&lt; "last:   " &lt;&lt; i->last () &lt;&lt; endl
         &lt;&lt; "gender: " &lt;&lt; (i->gender () == male ? "male" : "female") &lt;&lt; endl
         &lt;&lt; "age:    " &lt;&lt; i->age () &lt;&lt; endl
         &lt;&lt; endl;
  }
}
  </pre>

  <p>The parser creation and assembly part is exactly the same as in
     the previous chapter. The parsing part is a bit different:
     <code>post_people()</code> now has a return value which is the
     complete object model. We store it in the
     <code>ppl</code> variable. The last bit of the code simply iterates
     over the <code>people</code> vector and prints the information
     for each person. We save the last two code fragments to
     <code>driver.cxx</code> and proceed to compile and test
     our new application:</p>


  <pre class="terminal">
$ c++ -I.../libxsd -c driver.cxx people-pskel.cxx
$ c++ -o driver driver.o people-pskel.o -lexpat
$ ./driver people.xml
first:  John
last:   Doe
gender: male
age:    32

first:  Jane
last:   Doe
gender: female
age:    28
  </pre>


  <!-- Mapping Configuration -->


  <h1><a name="5">5 Mapping Configuration</a></h1>

  <p>The C++/Parser mapping has a number of configuration parameters that
     determine the overall properties and behavior of the generated code.
     Configuration parameters are specified with the XSD command line
     options and include the C++ standard, the character type that is used
     by the generated code, the underlying XML parser, whether the XML Schema
     validation is performed in the generated code, and support for XML Schema
     polymorphism. This chapter describes these configuration
     parameters in more detail. For more ways to configure the generated
     code refer to the
     <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
     Compiler Command Line Manual</a>.
  </p>

  <h2><a name="5.1">5.1 C++ Standard</a></h2>

  <p>The C++/Parser mapping provides support for ISO/IEC C++ 1998/2003 (C++98)
     and ISO/IEC C++ 2011 (C++11). To select the C++ standard for the
     generated code we use the <code>--std</code> XSD compiler command
     line option. While the majority of the examples in this guide use
     C++98, support for the new functionality and library components
     introduced in C++11 are discussed throughout the document.</p>

  <h2><a name="5.2">5.2 Character Type and Encoding</a></h2>

  <p>The C++/Parser mapping has built-in support for two character types:
    <code>char</code> and <code>wchar_t</code>. You can select the
    character type with the <code>--char-type</code> command line
    option. The default character type is <code>char</code>. The
    string-based built-in XML Schema types are returned as either
    <code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code> depending
    on the character type selected.</p>

  <p>Another aspect of the mapping that depends on the character type
     is character encoding. For the <code>char</code> character type
     the default encoding is UTF-8. Other supported encodings are
     ISO-8859-1, Xerces-C++ Local Code Page (LPC), as well as
     custom encodings. You can select which encoding should be used
     in the object model with the <code>--char-encoding</code> command
     line option.</p>

  <p>For the <code>wchar_t</code> character type the encoding is
     automatically selected between UTF-16 and UTF-32/UCS-4 depending
     on the size of the <code>wchar_t</code> type. On some platforms
     (for example, Windows with Visual C++ and AIX with IBM XL C++)
     <code>wchar_t</code> is 2 bytes long. For these platforms the
     encoding is UTF-16. On other platforms <code>wchar_t</code> is 4 bytes
     long and UTF-32/UCS-4 is used.</p>

  <p>Note also that the character encoding that is used in the object model
     is independent of the encodings used in input and output XML. In fact,
     all three (object mode, input XML, and output XML) can have different
     encodings.</p>

  <h2><a name="5.3">5.3 Underlying XML Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The C++/Parser mapping can be used with either Xerces-C++ or Expat
     as the underlying XML parser. You can select the XML parser with
     the <code>--xml-parser</code> command line option. Valid values
     for this option are <code>xerces</code> and <code>expat</code>.
     The default XML parser is Xerces-C++.</p>

  <p>The generated code is identical for both parsers except for the
     <code>xml_schema::document</code> class in which some of the
     <code>parse()</code> functions are parser-specific as described
     in <a href="#7">Chapter 7, "Document Parser and Error Handling"</a>.</p>


  <h2><a name="5.4">5.4 XML Schema Validation</a></h2>

  <p>The C++/Parser mapping provides support for validating a
     commonly-used subset of W3C XML Schema in the generated code.
     For the list of supported XML Schema constructs refer to
     <a href="#A">Appendix A, "Supported XML Schema Constructs"</a>.</p>

  <p>By default validation in the generated code is disabled if
     the underlying XML parser is validating (Xerces-C++) and
     enabled otherwise (Expat). See <a href="#5.3">Section 5.3,
     "Underlying XML Parser"</a> for more information about
     the underlying XML parser. You can override the default
     behavior with the <code>--generate-validation</code>
     and <code>--suppress-validation</code> command line options.</p>


  <h2><a name="5.5">5.5 Support for Polymorphism</a></h2>

  <p>By default the XSD compiler generates non-polymorphic code. If your
     vocabulary uses XML Schema polymorphism in the form of <code>xsi:type</code>
     and/or substitution groups, then you will need to compile your schemas
     with the <code>--generate-polymorphic</code> option to produce
     polymorphism-aware code as well as pass <code>true</code> as the last
     argument to the <code>xml_schema::document</code>'s constructors.</p>

  <p>When using the polymorphism-aware generated code, you can specify
     several parsers for a single element by passing a parser map
     instead of an individual parser to the parser connection function
     for the element. One of the parsers will then be looked up and used
     depending on the <code>xsi:type</code> attribute value or an element
     name from a substitution group. Consider the following schema as an
     example:</p>

  <pre class="xml">
&lt;xs:schema xmlns:xs="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema">

  &lt;xs:complexType name="person">
    &lt;xs:sequence>
      &lt;xs:element name="name" type="xs:string"/>
    &lt;/xs:sequence>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;!-- substitution group root -->
  &lt;xs:element name="person" type="person"/>

  &lt;xs:complexType name="superman">
    &lt;xs:complexContent>
      &lt;xs:extension base="person">
        &lt;xs:attribute name="can-fly" type="xs:boolean"/>
      &lt;/xs:extension>
    &lt;/xs:complexContent>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:element name="superman"
              type="superman"
              substitutionGroup="person"/>

  &lt;xs:complexType name="batman">
    &lt;xs:complexContent>
      &lt;xs:extension base="superman">
        &lt;xs:attribute name="wing-span" type="xs:unsignedInt"/>
      &lt;/xs:extension>
    &lt;/xs:complexContent>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:element name="batman"
              type="batman"
              substitutionGroup="superman"/>

  &lt;xs:complexType name="supermen">
    &lt;xs:sequence>
      &lt;xs:element ref="person" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
    &lt;/xs:sequence>
  &lt;/xs:complexType>

  &lt;xs:element name="supermen" type="supermen"/>

&lt;/xs:schema>
  </pre>

  <p>Conforming XML documents can use the <code>superman</code>
     and <code>batman</code> types in place of the <code>person</code>
     type either by specifying the type with the <code>xsi:type</code>
     attributes or by using the elements from the substitution
     group, for instance:</p>


  <pre class="xml">
&lt;supermen xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">

  &lt;person>
    &lt;name>John Doe&lt;/name>
  &lt;/person>

  &lt;superman can-fly="false">
    &lt;name>James "007" Bond&lt;/name>
  &lt;/superman>

  &lt;superman can-fly="true" wing-span="10" xsi:type="batman">
    &lt;name>Bruce Wayne&lt;/name>
  &lt;/superman>

&lt;/supermen>
  </pre>

  <p>To print the data stored in such XML documents we can implement
     the parsers as follows:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class person_pimpl: public virtual person_pskel
{
public:
  virtual void
  pre ()
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "starting to parse person" &lt;&lt; endl;
  }

  virtual void
  name (const std::string&amp; v)
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "name: " &lt;&lt; v &lt;&lt; endl;
  }

  virtual void
  post_person ()
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "finished parsing person" &lt;&lt; endl;
  }
};

class superman_pimpl: public virtual superman_pskel,
                      public person_pimpl
{
public:
  virtual void
  pre ()
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "starting to parse superman" &lt;&lt; endl;
  }

  virtual void
  can_fly (bool v)
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "can-fly: " &lt;&lt; v &lt;&lt; endl;
  }

  virtual void
  post_person ()
  {
    post_superman ();
  }

  virtual void
  post_superman ()
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "finished parsing superman" &lt;&lt; endl
  }
};

class batman_pimpl: public virtual batman_pskel,
                    public superman_pimpl
{
public:
  virtual void
  pre ()
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "starting to parse batman" &lt;&lt; endl;
  }

  virtual void
  wing_span (unsigned int v)
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "wing-span: " &lt;&lt; v &lt;&lt; endl;
  }

  virtual void
  post_superman ()
  {
    post_batman ();
  }

  virtual void
  post_batman ()
  {
    cout &lt;&lt; "finished parsing batman" &lt;&lt; endl;
  }
};
  </pre>

  <p>Note that because the derived type parsers (<code>superman_pskel</code>
     and <code>batman_pskel</code>) are called via the <code>person_pskel</code>
     interface, we have to override the <code>post_person()</code>
     virtual function in <code>superman_pimpl</code> to call
     <code>post_superman()</code> and the <code>post_superman()</code>
     virtual function in <code>batman_pimpl</code> to call
     <code>post_batman()</code>.</p>

  <p>The following code fragment shows how to connect the parsers together.
     Notice that for the <code>person</code> element in the <code>supermen_p</code>
     parser we specify a parser map instead of a specific parser and we pass
     <code>true</code> as the last argument to the document parser constructor
     to indicate that we are parsing potentially-polymorphic XML documents:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  // Construct the parser.
  //
  xml_schema::string_pimpl string_p;
  xml_schema::boolean_pimpl boolean_p;
  xml_schema::unsigned_int_pimpl unsigned_int_p;

  person_pimpl person_p;
  superman_pimpl superman_p;
  batman_pimpl batman_p;

  xml_schema::parser_map_impl person_map;
  supermen_pimpl supermen_p;

  person_p.parsers (string_p);
  superman_p.parsers (string_p, boolean_p);
  batman_p.parsers (string_p, boolean_p, unsigned_int_p);

  // Here we are specifying a parser map which containes several
  // parsers that can be used to parse the person element.
  //
  person_map.insert (person_p);
  person_map.insert (superman_p);
  person_map.insert (batman_p);

  supermen_p.person_parser (person_map);

  // Parse the XML document. The last argument to the document's
  // constructor indicates that we are parsing polymorphic XML
  // documents.
  //
  xml_schema::document doc_p (supermen_p, "supermen", true);

  supermen_p.pre ();
  doc_p.parse (argv[1]);
  supermen_p.post_supermen ();
}
  </pre>

  <p>When polymorphism-aware code is generated, each element's
     <code>*_parser()</code> function is overloaded to also accept
     an object of the <code>xml_schema::parser_map</code> type.
     For example, the <code>supermen_pskel</code> class from the
     above example looks like this:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
class supermen_pskel: public xml_schema::parser_complex_content
{
public:

  ...

  // Parser construction API.
  //
  void
  parsers (person_pskel&amp;);

  // Individual element parsers.
  //
  void
  person_parser (person_pskel&amp;);

  void
  person_parser (const xml_schema::parser_map&amp;);

  ...
};
  </pre>

  <p>Note that you can specify both the individual (static) parser and
     the parser map. The individual parser will be used when the static
     element type and the dynamic type of the object being parsed are
     the same. This is the case, for example, when there is no
     <code>xsi:type</code> attribute and the element hasn't been
     substituted. Because the individual parser for an element is
     cached and no map lookup is necessary, it makes sense to specify
     both the individual parser and the parser map when most of the
     objects being parsed are of the static type and optimal
     performance is important. The following code fragment shows
     how to change the above example to set both the individual
     parser and the parser map:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  ...

  person_map.insert (superman_p);
  person_map.insert (batman_p);

  supermen_p.person_parser (person_p);
  supermen_p.person_parser (person_map);

  ...
}
  </pre>


  <p>The <code>xml_schema::parser_map</code> interface and the
     <code>xml_schema::parser_map_impl</code> default implementation
     are presented below:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class parser_map
  {
  public:
    virtual parser_base*
    find (const ro_string* type) const = 0;
  };

  class parser_map_impl: public parser_map
  {
  public:
    void
    insert (parser_base&amp;);

    virtual parser_base*
    find (const ro_string* type) const;

  private:
    parser_map_impl (const parser_map_impl&amp;);

    parser_map_impl&amp;
    operator= (const parser_map_impl&amp;);

    ...
  };
}
  </pre>

  <p>The <code>type</code> argument in the <code>find()</code> virtual
     function is the type name and namespace from the xsi:type attribute
     (the namespace prefix is resolved to the actual XML namespace)
     or the type of an element from the substitution group in the form
     <code>"&lt;name>&nbsp;&lt;namespace>"</code> with the space and the
     namespace part absent if the type does not have a namespace.
     You can obtain a parser's dynamic type in the same format
     using the <code>_dynamic_type()</code> function. The static
     type can be obtained by calling the static <code>_static_type()</code>
     function, for example <code>person_pskel::_static_type()</code>.
     Both functions return a C string (<code>const char*</code> or
     <code>const wchar_t*</code>, depending on the character type
     used) which is valid for as long as the application is running.
     The following example shows how we can implement our own parser
     map using <code>std::map</code>:</p>


  <pre class="c++">
#include &lt;map>
#include &lt;string>

class parser_map: public xml_schema::parser_map
{
public:
 void
 insert (xml_schema::parser_base&amp; p)
 {
   map_[p._dynamic_type ()] = &amp;p;
 }

 virtual xml_schema::parser_base*
 find (const xml_schema::ro_string* type) const
 {
   map::const_iterator i = map_.find (type);
   return i != map_.end () ? i->second : 0;
 }

private:
  typedef std::map&lt;std::string, xml_schema::parser_base*> map;
  map map_;
};
  </pre>

  <p>Most of code presented in this section is taken from the
     <code>polymorphism</code> example which can be found in the
     <code>examples/cxx/parser/</code> directory of the XSD distribution.
     Handling of <code>xsi:type</code> and substitution groups when used
     on root elements requires a number of special actions as shown in
     the <code>polyroot</code> example.</p>


  <!-- Built-in XML Schema Type Parsers -->


  <h1><a name="6">6 Built-In XML Schema Type Parsers</a></h1>

  <p>The XSD runtime provides parser implementations for all built-in
     XML Schema types as summarized in the following table. Declarations
     for these types are automatically included into each generated
     header file. As a result you don't need to include any headers
     to gain access to these parser implementations. Note that some
     parsers return either <code>std::string</code> or
     <code>std::wstring</code> depending on the character type selected.</p>

  <!-- border="1" is necessary for html2ps -->
  <table id="builtin" border="1">
    <tr>
      <th>XML Schema type</th>
      <th>Parser implementation in the <code>xml_schema</code> namespace</th>
      <th>Parser return type</th>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">anyType and anySimpleType types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>anyType</code></td>
      <td><code>any_type_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>void</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>anySimpleType</code></td>
      <td><code>any_simple_type_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>void</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">fixed-length integral types</th>
    </tr>
    <!-- 8-bit -->
    <tr>
      <td><code>byte</code></td>
      <td><code>byte_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>signed&nbsp;char</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>unsignedByte</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned_byte_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;char</code></td>
    </tr>

    <!-- 16-bit -->
    <tr>
      <td><code>short</code></td>
      <td><code>short_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>short</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>unsignedShort</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned_short_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;short</code></td>
    </tr>

    <!-- 32-bit -->
    <tr>
      <td><code>int</code></td>
      <td><code>int_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>int</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>unsignedInt</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned_int_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;int</code></td>
    </tr>

    <!-- 64-bit -->
    <tr>
      <td><code>long</code></td>
      <td><code>long_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>unsignedLong</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned_long_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">arbitrary-length integral types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>integer</code></td>
      <td><code>integer_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>nonPositiveInteger</code></td>
      <td><code>non_positive_integer_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>nonNegativeInteger</code></td>
      <td><code>non_negative_integer_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>positiveInteger</code></td>
      <td><code>positive_integer_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>unsigned long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>negativeInteger</code></td>
      <td><code>negative_integer_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">boolean types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>boolean</code></td>
      <td><code>boolean_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>bool</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">fixed-precision floating-point types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>float</code></td>
      <td><code>float_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>float</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>double</code></td>
      <td><code>double_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>double</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">arbitrary-precision floating-point types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>decimal</code></td>
      <td><code>decimal_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>double</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">string-based types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>string</code></td>
      <td><code>string_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>normalizedString</code></td>
      <td><code>normalized_string_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>token</code></td>
      <td><code>token_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>Name</code></td>
      <td><code>name_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>NMTOKEN</code></td>
      <td><code>nmtoken_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>NCName</code></td>
      <td><code>ncname_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <td><code>language</code></td>
      <td><code>language_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">qualified name</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>QName</code></td>
      <td><code>qname_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::qname</code><br/><a href="#6.1">Section 6.1,
          "<code>QName</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">ID/IDREF types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>ID</code></td>
      <td><code>id_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>IDREF</code></td>
      <td><code>idref_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">list types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>NMTOKENS</code></td>
      <td><code>nmtokens_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::string_sequence</code><br/><a href="#6.2">Section
          6.2, "<code>NMTOKENS</code> and <code>IDREFS</code> Parsers"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>IDREFS</code></td>
      <td><code>idrefs_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::string_sequence</code><br/><a href="#6.2">Section
          6.2, "<code>NMTOKENS</code> and <code>IDREFS</code> Parsers"</a></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">URI types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>anyURI</code></td>
      <td><code>uri_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::string</code> or <code>std::wstring</code></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">binary types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>base64Binary</code></td>
      <td><code>base64_binary_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::[auto|unique]_ptr&lt; xml_schema::buffer></code><br/>
          <a href="#6.3">Section 6.3, "<code>base64Binary</code> and
          <code>hexBinary</code> Parsers"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>hexBinary</code></td>
      <td><code>hex_binary_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>std::[auto|unique]_ptr&lt; xml_schema::buffer></code><br/>
          <a href="#6.3">Section 6.3, "<code>base64Binary</code> and
          <code>hexBinary</code> Parsers"</a></td>
    </tr>

    <tr>
      <th colspan="3">date/time types</th>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>date</code></td>
      <td><code>date_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::date</code><br/><a href="#6.5">Section 6.5,
          "<code>date</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>dateTime</code></td>
      <td><code>date_time_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::date_time</code><br/><a href="#6.6">Section 6.6,
          "<code>dateTime</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>duration</code></td>
      <td><code>duration_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::duration</code><br/><a href="#6.7">Section 6.7,
          "<code>duration</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gDay</code></td>
      <td><code>gday_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gday</code><br/><a href="#6.8">Section 6.8,
          "<code>gDay</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gMonth</code></td>
      <td><code>gmonth_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gmonth</code><br/><a href="#6.9">Section 6.9,
          "<code>gMonth</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gMonthDay</code></td>
      <td><code>gmonth_day_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gmonth_day</code><br/><a href="#6.10">Section 6.10,
          "<code>gMonthDay</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gYear</code></td>
      <td><code>gyear_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gyear</code><br/><a href="#6.11">Section 6.11,
          "<code>gYear</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>gYearMonth</code></td>
      <td><code>gyear_month_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::gyear_month</code><br/><a href="#6.12">Section
          6.12, "<code>gYearMonth</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>
    <tr>
      <td><code>time</code></td>
      <td><code>time_pimpl</code></td>
      <td><code>xml_schema::time</code><br/><a href="#6.13">Section 6.13,
          "<code>time</code> Parser"</a></td>
    </tr>

  </table>

  <h2><a name="6.1">6.1 <code>QName</code> Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>qname_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::qname</code> which represents an XML qualified
     name. Its interface is presented below.
     Note that the <code>std::string</code> type in the interface becomes
     <code>std::wstring</code> if the selected character type is
     <code>wchar_t</code>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class qname
  {
  public:
    explicit
    qname (const std::string&amp; name);
    qname (const std::string&amp; prefix, const std::string&amp; name);

    const std::string&amp;
    prefix () const;

    void
    prefix (const std::string&amp;);

    const std::string&amp;
    name () const;

    void
    name (const std::string&amp;);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const qname&amp;, const qname&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const qname&amp;, const qname&amp;);
}
  </pre>


  <h2><a name="6.2">6.2 <code>NMTOKENS</code> and <code>IDREFS</code> Parsers</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>nmtokens_pimpl</code> and
     <code>idrefs_pimpl</code> parser implementations is
     <code>xml_schema::string_sequence</code> which represents a
     sequence of strings. Its interface is presented below.
     Note that the <code>std::string</code> type in the interface becomes
     <code>std::wstring</code> if the selected character type is
     <code>wchar_t</code>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class string_sequence: public std::vector&lt;std::string>
  {
  public:
    string_sequence ();

    explicit
    string_sequence (std::vector&lt;std::string>::size_type n,
                     const std::string&amp; x = std::string ());

    template &lt;typename I>
    string_sequence (const I&amp; begin, const I&amp; end);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const string_sequence&amp;, const string_sequence&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const string_sequence&amp;, const string_sequence&amp;);
}
  </pre>


  <h2><a name="6.3">6.3 <code>base64Binary</code> and <code>hexBinary</code> Parsers</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>base64_binary_pimpl</code> and
     <code>hex_binary_pimpl</code> parser implementations is either
     <code>std::auto_ptr&lt;xml_schema::buffer></code> (C++98) or
     <code>std::unique_ptr&lt;xml_schema::buffer></code> (C++11),
     depending on the C++ standard selected (<code>--std</code> XSD
     compiler option). The <code>xml_schema::buffer</code> type
     represents a binary buffer and its interface is presented below.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class buffer
  {
  public:
    typedef std::size_t size_t;

    class bounds {}; // Out of bounds exception.

  public:
    explicit
    buffer (size_t size = 0);
    buffer (size_t size, size_t capacity);
    buffer (const void* data, size_t size);
    buffer (const void* data, size_t size, size_t capacity);
    buffer (void* data,
            size_t size,
            size_t capacity,
            bool assume_ownership);

  public:
    buffer (const buffer&amp;);

    buffer&amp;
    operator= (const buffer&amp;);

    void
    swap (buffer&amp;);

  public:
    size_t
    capacity () const;

    bool
    capacity (size_t);

  public:
    size_t
    size () const;

    bool
    size (size_t);

  public:
    const char*
    data () const;

    char*
    data ();

    const char*
    begin () const;

    char*
    begin ();

    const char*
    end () const;

    char*
    end ();
  };

  bool
  operator== (const buffer&amp;, const buffer&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const buffer&amp;, const buffer&amp;);
}
  </pre>

  <p>If the <code>assume_ownership</code> argument to the constructor
     is <code>true</code>, the instance assumes the ownership of the
     memory block pointed to by the <code>data</code> argument and will
     eventually release it by calling <code>operator delete()</code>. The
     <code>capacity()</code> and <code>size()</code> modifier functions
     return <code>true</code> if the underlying buffer has moved.
  </p>

  <p>The <code>bounds</code> exception is thrown if the constructor
     arguments violate the <code>(size&nbsp;&lt;=&nbsp;capacity)</code>
     constraint.</p>


  <h2><a name="6.4">6.4 Time Zone Representation</a></h2>

  <p>The <code>date</code>, <code>dateTime</code>, <code>gDay</code>,
     <code>gMonth</code>, <code>gMonthDay</code>, <code>gYear</code>,
     <code>gYearMonth</code>, and <code>time</code> XML Schema built-in
     types all include an optional time zone component. The following
     <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code> base class is used to represent
     this information:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class time_zone
  {
  public:
    time_zone ();
    time_zone (short hours, short minutes);

    bool
    zone_present () const;

    void
    zone_reset ();

    short
    zone_hours () const;

    void
    zone_hours (short);

    short
    zone_minutes () const;

    void
    zone_minutes (short);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const time_zone&amp;, const time_zone&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const time_zone&amp;, const time_zone&amp;);
}
  </pre>

  <p>The <code>zone_present()</code> accessor function returns <code>true</code>
     if the time zone is specified. The <code>zone_reset()</code> modifier
     function resets the time zone object to the <em>not specified</em>
     state. If the time zone offset is negative then both hours and
     minutes components are represented as negative integers.</p>


  <h2><a name="6.5">6.5 <code>date</code> Parser</a></h2>

 <p>The return type of the <code>date_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::date</code> which represents a year, a day, and a month
     with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below.
     For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
     class refer to <a href="#6.4">Section 6.4, "Time Zone
     Representation"</a>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class date
  {
  public:
    date (int year, unsigned short month, unsigned short day);
    date (int year, unsigned short month, unsigned short day,
          short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);

    int
    year () const;

    void
    year (int);

    unsigned short
    month () const;

    void
    month (unsigned short);

    unsigned short
    day () const;

    void
    day (unsigned short);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const date&amp;, const date&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const date&amp;, const date&amp;);
}
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="6.6">6.6 <code>dateTime</code> Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>date_time_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::date_time</code> which represents a year, a month, a day,
     hours, minutes, and seconds with an optional time zone. Its interface
     is presented below.
     For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
     class refer to <a href="#6.4">Section 6.4, "Time Zone
     Representation"</a>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class date_time
  {
  public:
    date_time (int year, unsigned short month, unsigned short day,
               unsigned short hours, unsigned short minutes,
               double seconds);

    date_time (int year, unsigned short month, unsigned short day,
               unsigned short hours, unsigned short minutes,
               double seconds, short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);

    int
    year () const;

    void
    year (int);

    unsigned short
    month () const;

    void
    month (unsigned short);

    unsigned short
    day () const;

    void
    day (unsigned short);

    unsigned short
    hours () const;

    void
    hours (unsigned short);

    unsigned short
    minutes () const;

    void
    minutes (unsigned short);

    double
    seconds () const;

    void
    seconds (double);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const date_time&amp;, const date_time&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const date_time&amp;, const date_time&amp;);
}
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="6.7">6.7 <code>duration</code> Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>duration_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::duration</code> which represents a potentially
     negative duration in the form of years, months, days, hours, minutes,
     and seconds. Its interface is presented below.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class duration
  {
  public:
    duration (bool negative,
              unsigned int years, unsigned int months, unsigned int days,
              unsigned int hours, unsigned int minutes, double seconds);

    bool
    negative () const;

    void
    negative (bool);

    unsigned int
    years () const;

    void
    years (unsigned int);

    unsigned int
    months () const;

    void
    months (unsigned int);

    unsigned int
    days () const;

    void
    days (unsigned int);

    unsigned int
    hours () const;

    void
    hours (unsigned int);

    unsigned int
    minutes () const;

    void
    minutes (unsigned int);

    double
    seconds () const;

    void
    seconds (double);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const duration&amp;, const duration&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const duration&amp;, const duration&amp;);
}
  </pre>


  <h2><a name="6.8">6.8 <code>gDay</code> Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>gday_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::gday</code> which represents a day of the month with
     an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below.
     For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
     class refer to <a href="#6.4">Section 6.4, "Time Zone
     Representation"</a>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class gday
  {
  public:
    explicit
    gday (unsigned short day);
    gday (unsigned short day, short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);

    unsigned short
    day () const;

    void
    day (unsigned short);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const gday&amp;, const gday&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const gday&amp;, const gday&amp;);
}
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="6.9">6.9 <code>gMonth</code> Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>gmonth_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::gmonth</code> which represents a month of the year
     with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below.
     For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
     class refer to <a href="#6.4">Section 6.4, "Time Zone
     Representation"</a>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class gmonth
  {
  public:
    explicit
    gmonth (unsigned short month);
    gmonth (unsigned short month, short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);

    unsigned short
    month () const;

    void
    month (unsigned short);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const gmonth&amp;, const gmonth&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const gmonth&amp;, const gmonth&amp;);
}
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="6.10">6.10 <code>gMonthDay</code> Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>gmonth_day_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::gmonth_day</code> which represents a day and a month
     of the year with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below.
     For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
     class refer to <a href="#6.4">Section 6.4, "Time Zone
     Representation"</a>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class gmonth_day
  {
  public:
    gmonth_day (unsigned short month, unsigned short day);
    gmonth_day (unsigned short month, unsigned short day,
                short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);

    unsigned short
    month () const;

    void
    month (unsigned short);

    unsigned short
    day () const;

    void
    day (unsigned short);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const gmonth_day&amp;, const gmonth_day&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const gmonth_day&amp;, const gmonth_day&amp;);
}
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="6.11">6.11 <code>gYear</code> Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>gyear_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::gyear</code> which represents a year with
     an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below.
     For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
     class refer to <a href="#6.4">Section 6.4, "Time Zone
     Representation"</a>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class gyear
  {
  public:
    explicit
    gyear (int year);
    gyear (int year, short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);

    int
    year () const;

    void
    year (int);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const gyear&amp;, const gyear&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const gyear&amp;, const gyear&amp;);
}
  </pre>

  <h2><a name="6.12">6.12 <code>gYearMonth</code> Parser</a></h2>

  <p>The return type of the <code>gyear_month_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::gyear_month</code> which represents a year and a month
     with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below.
     For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
     class refer to <a href="#6.4">Section 6.4, "Time Zone
     Representation"</a>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class gyear_month
  {
  public:
    gyear_month (int year, unsigned short month);
    gyear_month (int year, unsigned short month,
                 short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);

    int
    year () const;

    void
    year (int);

    unsigned short
    month () const;

    void
    month (unsigned short);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const gyear_month&amp;, const gyear_month&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const gyear_month&amp;, const gyear_month&amp;);
}
  </pre>


  <h2><a name="6.13">6.13 <code>time</code> Parser</a></h2>

 <p>The return type of the <code>time_pimpl</code> parser implementation
     is <code>xml_schema::time</code> which represents hours, minutes,
     and seconds with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below.
     For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
     class refer to <a href="#6.4">Section 6.4, "Time Zone
     Representation"</a>.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class time
  {
  public:
    time (unsigned short hours, unsigned short minutes, double seconds);
    time (unsigned short hours, unsigned short minutes, double seconds,
          short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);

    unsigned short
    hours () const;

    void
    hours (unsigned short);

    unsigned short
    minutes () const;

    void
    minutes (unsigned short);

    double
    seconds () const;

    void
    seconds (double);
  };

  bool
  operator== (const time&amp;, const time&amp;);

  bool
  operator!= (const time&amp;, const time&amp;);
}
  </pre>


  <!-- Error Handling -->


  <h1><a name="7">7 Document Parser and Error Handling</a></h1>

  <p>In this chapter we will discuss the <code>xml_schema::document</code>
     type as well as the error handling mechanisms provided by the mapping
     in more detail. As mentioned in <a href="#3.4">Section 3.4,
     "Connecting the Parsers Together"</a>, the interface of
     <code>xml_schema::document</code> depends on the underlying XML
     parser selected (<a href="#5.3">Section 5.3, "Underlying XML
     Parser"</a>). The following sections describe the
     <code>document</code> type interface for Xerces-C++ and
     Expat as underlying parsers.</p>

  <h2><a name="7.1">7.1 Xerces-C++ Document Parser</a></h2>

  <p>When Xerces-C++ is used as the underlying XML parser, the
     <code>document</code> type has the following interface. Note that
     if the character type is <code>wchar_t</code>, then the string type
     in the interface becomes <code>std::wstring</code>
     (see <a href="#5.2">Section 5.2, "Character Type and Encoding"</a>).</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class parser_base;
  class error_handler;

  class flags
  {
  public:
    // Do not validate XML documents with the Xerces-C++ validator.
    //
    static const unsigned long dont_validate;

    // Do not initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime.
    //
    static const unsigned long dont_initialize;

    // Disable handling of subsequent imports for the same namespace
    // in Xerces-C++ 3.1.0 and later.
    //
    static const unsigned long no_multiple_imports;
  };

  class properties
  {
  public:
    // Add a location for a schema with a target namespace.
    //
    void
    schema_location (const std::string&amp; namespace_,
                     const std::string&amp; location);

    // Add a location for a schema without a target namespace.
    //
    void
    no_namespace_schema_location (const std::string&amp; location);
  };

  class document
  {
  public:
    document (parser_base&amp; root,
              const std::string&amp; root_element_name,
	      bool polymorphic = false);

    document (parser_base&amp; root,
              const std::string&amp; root_element_namespace,
              const std::string&amp; root_element_name,
	      bool polymorphic = false);

  public:
    // Parse URI or a local file.
    //
    void
    parse (const std::string&amp; uri,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse URI or a local file with a user-provided error_handler
    // object.
    //
    void
    parse (const std::string&amp; uri,
           error_handler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse URI or a local file with a user-provided ErrorHandler
    // object. Note that you must initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime
    // before calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (const std::string&amp; uri,
           xercesc::ErrorHandler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse URI or a local file using a user-provided SAX2XMLReader
    // object. Note that you must initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime
    // before calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (const std::string&amp; uri,
           xercesc::SAX2XMLReader&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

  public:
    // Parse std::istream.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse std::istream with a user-provided error_handler object.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           error_handler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse std::istream with a user-provided ErrorHandler object.
    // Note that you must initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime before
    // calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           xercesc::ErrorHandler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse std::istream using a user-provided SAX2XMLReader object.
    // Note that you must initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime before
    // calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           xercesc::SAX2XMLReader&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

  public:
    // Parse std::istream with a system id.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse std::istream with a system id and a user-provided
    // error_handler object.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           error_handler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse std::istream with a system id and a user-provided
    // ErrorHandler object. Note that you must initialize the
    // Xerces-C++ runtime before calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           xercesc::ErrorHandler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse std::istream with a system id using a user-provided
    // SAX2XMLReader object. Note that you must initialize the
    // Xerces-C++ runtime before calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           xercesc::SAX2XMLReader&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

  public:
    // Parse std::istream with system and public ids.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           const std::string&amp; public_id,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse std::istream with system and public ids and a user-provided
    // error_handler object.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           const std::string&amp; public_id,
           error_handler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse std::istream with system and public ids and a user-provided
    // ErrorHandler object. Note that you must initialize the Xerces-C++
    // runtime before calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           const std::string&amp; public_id,
           xercesc::ErrorHandler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse std::istream with system and public ids using a user-
    // provided SAX2XMLReader object. Note that you must initialize
    // the Xerces-C++ runtime before calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           const std::string&amp; public_id,
           xercesc::SAX2XMLReader&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

  public:
    // Parse InputSource. Note that you must initialize the Xerces-C++
    // runtime before calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (const xercesc::InputSource&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse InputSource with a user-provided error_handler object.
    // Note that you must initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime before
    // calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (const xercesc::InputSource&amp;,
           error_handler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse InputSource with a user-provided ErrorHandler object.
    // Note that you must initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime before
    // calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (const xercesc::InputSource&amp;,
           xercesc::ErrorHandler&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());

    // Parse InputSource using a user-provided SAX2XMLReader object.
    // Note that you must initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime before
    // calling this function.
    //
    void
    parse (const xercesc::InputSource&amp;,
           xercesc::SAX2XMLReader&amp;,
           flags = 0,
           const properties&amp; = properties ());
  };
}
  </pre>

  <p>The <code>document</code> class is a root parser for
     the vocabulary. The first argument to its constructors is the
     parser for the type of the root element. The <code>parser_base</code>
     class is the base type for all parser skeletons. The second and
     third arguments to the <code>document</code>'s constructors are
     the root element's name and namespace. The last argument,
     <code>polymorphic</code>, specifies whether the XML documents
     being parsed use polymorphism. For more information on support
     for XML Schema polymorphism in the C++/Parser mapping refer
     to <a href="#5.5">Section 5.5, "Support for Polymorphism"</a>.</p>

  <p>The rest of the <code>document</code> interface consists of overloaded
     <code>parse()</code> functions. The last two arguments in each of these
     functions are <code>flags</code> and <code>properties</code>. The
     <code>flags</code> argument allows you to modify the default behavior
     of the parsing functions. The <code>properties</code> argument allows
     you to override the schema location attributes specified in XML
     documents. Note that the schema location paths are relative to an
     XML document unless they are complete URIs. For example if you want
     to use a local schema file then you will need to use a URI in the
     form <code>file:///absolute/path/to/your/schema</code>.</p>

  <p>A number of overloaded <code>parse()</code> functions have the
     <code>system_id</code> and <code>public_id</code> arguments. The
     system id is a <em>system</em> identifier of the resources being
     parsed (for example, URI or a full file path). The public id is a
     <em>public</em> identifier of the resource (for example, an
     application-specific name or a relative file path). The system id
     is used to resolve relative paths (for example, schema paths). In
     diagnostics messages the public id is used if it is available.
     Otherwise the system id is used.</p>

  <p>The error handling mechanisms employed by the <code>document</code>
     parser are described in <a href="#7.3">Section 7.3, "Error
     Handling"</a>.</p>

  <h2><a name="7.2">7.2 Expat Document Parser</a></h2>

  <p>When Expat is used as the underlying XML parser, the
     <code>document</code> type has the following interface. Note that
     if the character type is <code>wchar_t</code>, then the string type
     in the interface becomes <code>std::wstring</code>
     (see <a href="#5.2">Section 5.2, "Character Type and Encoding"</a>).</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class parser_base;
  class error_handler;

  class document
  {
  public:
    document (parser_base&amp;,
              const std::string&amp; root_element_name,
              bool polymorphic = false);

    document (parser_base&amp;,
              const std::string&amp; root_element_namespace,
              const std::string&amp; root_element_name,
              bool polymorphic = false);

  public:
    // Parse a local file. The file is accessed with std::ifstream
    // in binary mode. The std::ios_base::failure exception is used
    // to report io errors (badbit and failbit).
    void
    parse (const std::string&amp; file);

    // Parse a local file with a user-provided error_handler
    // object. The file is accessed with std::ifstream in binary
    // mode. The std::ios_base::failure exception is used to report
    // io errors (badbit and failbit).
    //
    void
    parse (const std::string&amp; file, error_handler&amp;);

  public:
    // Parse std::istream.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;);

    // Parse std::istream with a user-provided error_handler object.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;, error_handler&amp;);

    // Parse std::istream with a system id.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;, const std::string&amp; system_id);

    // Parse std::istream with a system id and a user-provided
    // error_handler object.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           error_handler&amp;);

    // Parse std::istream with system and public ids.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           const std::string&amp; public_id);

    // Parse std::istream with system and public ids and a user-provided
    // error_handler object.
    //
    void
    parse (std::istream&amp;,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           const std::string&amp; public_id,
           error_handler&amp;);

  public:
    // Parse a chunk of input. You can call these functions multiple
    // times with the last call having the last argument true.
    //
    void
    parse (const void* data, std::size_t size, bool last);

    void
    parse (const void* data, std::size_t size, bool last,
           error_handler&amp;);

    void
    parse (const void* data, std::size_t size, bool last,
           const std::string&amp; system_id);

    void
    parse (const void* data, std::size_t size, bool last,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           error_handler&amp;);

    void
    parse (const void* data, std::size_t size, bool last,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           const std::string&amp; public_id);

    void
    parse (const void* data, std::size_t size, bool last,
           const std::string&amp; system_id,
           const std::string&amp; public_id,
           error_handler&amp;);

  public:
    // Low-level Expat-specific parsing API.
    //
    void
    parse_begin (XML_Parser);

    void
    parse_begin (XML_Parser, const std::string&amp; public_id);

    void
    parse_begin (XML_Parser, error_handler&amp;);

    void
    parse_begin (XML_Parser,
                 const std::string&amp; public_id,
                 error_handler&amp;);
    void
    parse_end ();
  };
}
  </pre>

  <p>The <code>document</code> class is a root parser for
     the vocabulary. The first argument to its constructors is the
     parser for the type of the root element. The <code>parser_base</code>
     class is the base type for all parser skeletons. The second and
     third arguments to the <code>document</code>'s constructors are
     the root element's name and namespace. The last argument,
     <code>polymorphic</code>, specifies whether the XML documents
     being parsed use polymorphism. For more information on support
     for XML Schema polymorphism in the C++/Parser mapping refer
     to <a href="#5.5">Section 5.5, "Support for Polymorphism"</a>.</p>

  <p>A number of overloaded <code>parse()</code> functions have the
     <code>system_id</code> and <code>public_id</code> arguments. The
     system id is a <em>system</em> identifier of the resources being
     parsed (for example, URI or a full file path). The public id is a
     <em>public</em> identifier of the resource (for example, an
     application-specific name or a relative file path). The system id
     is used to resolve relative paths. In diagnostics messages the
     public id is used if it is available. Otherwise the system id
     is used.</p>

  <p>The <code>parse_begin()</code> and <code>parse_end()</code> functions
     present a low-level, Expat-specific parsing API for maximum control.
     A typical use-case would look like this (pseudo-code):</p>

  <pre class="c++">
xxx_pimpl root_p;
document doc_p (root_p, "root");

root_p.pre ();
doc_p.parse_begin (xml_parser, "file.xml");

while (more_data_to_parse)
{
  // Call XML_Parse or XML_ParseBuffer.

  if (status == XML_STATUS_ERROR)
    break;
}

// Call parse_end even in case of an error to translate
// XML and Schema errors to exceptions or error_handler
// calls.
//
doc.parse_end ();
result_type result (root_p.post_xxx ());
  </pre>

  <p>Note that if your vocabulary uses XML namespaces, the
     <code>XML_ParserCreateNS()</code> functions should be used to create
     the XML parser. Space (<code>XML_Char (' ')</code>) should be used
     as a separator (the second argument to <code>XML_ParserCreateNS()</code>).
  </p>

  <p>The error handling mechanisms employed by the <code>document</code>
     parser are described in <a href="#7.3">Section 7.3, "Error
     Handling"</a>.</p>


  <h2><a name="7.3">7.3 Error Handling</a></h2>

  <p>There are three categories of errors that can result from running
     a parser on an XML document: System, XML, and Application.
     The System category contains memory allocation and file/stream
     operation errors. The XML category covers XML parsing and
     well-formedness checking as well as XML Schema validation errors.
     Finally, the Application category is for application logic errors
     that you may want to propagate from parser implementations to the
     caller of the parser.
  </p>

  <p>The System errors are mapped to the standard exceptions. The
     out of memory condition is indicated by throwing an instance
     of <code>std::bad_alloc</code>. The stream operation errors
     are reported either by throwing an instance of
     <code>std::ios_base::failure</code> if exceptions are enabled
     or by setting the stream state.</p>

  <p>Note that if you are parsing <code>std::istream</code> on
     which exceptions are not enabled, then you will need to
     check the stream state before calling the <code>post()</code>
     callback, as shown in the following example:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  ...

  std::ifstream ifs (argv[1]);

  if (ifs.fail ())
  {
    cerr &lt;&lt; argv[1] &lt;&lt; ": unable to open" &lt;&lt; endl;
    return 1;
  }

  root_p.pre ();
  doc_p.parse (ifs);

  if (ifs.fail ())
  {
    cerr &lt;&lt; argv[1] &lt;&lt; ": io failure" &lt;&lt; endl;
    return 1;
  }

  result_type result (root_p.post_xxx ());
}
  </pre>

  <p>The above example can be rewritten to use exceptions
     as shown below:</p>

  <pre class="c++">
int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  try
  {
    ...

    std::ifstream ifs;
    ifs.exceptions (std::ifstream::badbit | std::ifstream::failbit);
    ifs.open (argv[1]);

    root_p.pre ();
    doc_p.parse (ifs);
    result_type result (root_p.post_xxx ());
  }
  catch (const std::ifstream::failure&amp;)
  {
    cerr &lt;&lt; argv[1] &lt;&lt; ": unable to open or io failure" &lt;&lt; endl;
    return 1;
  }
}
  </pre>


  <p>For reporting application errors from parsing callbacks, you
     can throw any exceptions of your choice. They are propagated to
     the caller of the parser without any alterations.</p>

  <p>The XML errors can be reported either by throwing the
     <code>xml_schema::parsing</code> exception or by a callback
     to the <code>xml_schema::error_handler</code> object (and
     <code>xercesc::ErrorHandler</code> object in case of Xerces-C++).</p>

  <p>The <code>xml_schema::parsing</code> exception contains
     a list of warnings and errors that were accumulated during
     parsing. Note that this exception is thrown only if there
     was an error. This makes it impossible to obtain warnings
     from an otherwise successful parsing using this mechanism.
     The following listing shows the definition of
     <code>xml_schema::parsing</code> exception. Note that if the
     character type is <code>wchar_t</code>, then the string type
     and output stream type in the definition become
     <code>std::wstring</code> and <code>std::wostream</code>,
     respectively (see <a href="#5.2">Section 5.2, "Character Type
     and Encoding"</a>).</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class exception: public std::exception
  {
  protected:
    virtual void
    print (std::ostream&amp;) const = 0;
  };

  inline std::ostream&amp;
  operator&lt;&lt; (std::ostream&amp; os, const exception&amp; e)
  {
    e.print (os);
    return os;
  }


  class severity
  {
  public:
    enum value
    {
      warning,
      error
    };
  };


  class error
  {
  public:
    error (xml_schema::severity,
           const std::string&amp; id,
           unsigned long line,
           unsigned long column,
           const std::string&amp; message);

    xml_schema::severity
    severity () const;

    const std::string&amp;
    id () const;

    unsigned long
    line () const;

    unsigned long
    column () const;

    const std::string&amp;
    message () const;
  };

  std::ostream&amp;
  operator&lt;&lt; (std::ostream&amp;, const error&amp;);


  class diagnostics: public std::vector&lt;error>
  {
  };

  std::ostream&amp;
  operator&lt;&lt; (std::ostream&amp;, const diagnostics&amp;);


  class parsing: public exception
  {
  public:
    parsing ();
    parsing (const xml_schema::diagnostics&amp;);

    const xml_schema::diagnostics&amp;
    diagnostics () const;

    virtual const char*
    what () const throw ();

  protected:
    virtual void
    print (std::ostream&amp;) const;
  };
}
  </pre>

  <p>The following example shows how we can catch and print this
     exception. The code will print diagnostics messages one per line
     in case of an error.</p>

  <pre class="c++">
int
main (int argc, char* argv[])
{
  try
  {
    // Parse.
  }
  catch (const xml_schema::parsing&amp; e)
  {
    cerr &lt;&lt; e &lt;&lt; endl;
    return 1;
  }
}
  </pre>

  <p>With the <code>error_handler</code> approach the diagnostics
     messages are delivered as parsing progresses. The following
     listing presents the definition of the <code>error_handler</code>
     interface. Note that if the character type is <code>wchar_t</code>,
     then the string type in the interface becomes <code>std::wstring</code>
     (see <a href="#5.2">Section 5.2, "Character Type and Encoding"</a>).</p>

  <pre class="c++">
namespace xml_schema
{
  class error_handler
  {
  public:
    class severity
    {
    public:
      enum value
      {
        warning,
        error,
        fatal
      };
    };

    virtual bool
    handle (const std::string&amp; id,
            unsigned long line,
            unsigned long column,
            severity,
            const std::string&amp; message) = 0;
  };
}
  </pre>

  <p>The return value of the <code>handle()</code> function indicates whether
     parsing should continue if possible. The error with the fatal severity
     level terminates the parsing process regardless of the returned value.
     At the end of the parsing process with an error that was reported via
     the  <code>error_handler</code> object, an empty
     <code>xml_schema::parsing</code> exception is thrown to indicate
     the failure to the caller. You can alter this behavior by throwing
     your own exception from the <code>handle()</code> function.</p>


  <!-- Appendix A -->


  <h1><a name="A">Appendix A &mdash; Supported XML Schema Constructs</a></h1>

  <p>The C++/Parser mapping supports validation of the following W3C XML
     Schema constructs in the generated code.</p>

  <!-- border="1" is necessary for html2ps -->
  <table id="features" border="1">
    <tr><th>Construct</th><th>Notes</th></tr>
    <tr><th colspan="2">Structure</th></tr>

    <tr><td>element</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>attribute</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>any</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>anyAttribute</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>all</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>sequence</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>choice</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>complex type, empty content</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>complex type, mixed content</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>complex type, simple content extension</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>complex type, simple content restriction</td>
        <td>Simple type facets are not validated.</td></tr>
    <tr><td>complex type, complex content extension</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>complex type, complex content restriction</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>list</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><th colspan="2">Datatypes</th></tr>

    <tr><td>byte</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>unsignedByte</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>short</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>unsignedShort</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>int</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>unsignedInt</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>long</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>unsignedLong</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>integer</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>nonPositiveInteger</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>nonNegativeInteger</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>positiveInteger</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>negativeInteger</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>boolean</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>float</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>double</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>decimal</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>string</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>normalizedString</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>token</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>Name</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>NMTOKEN</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>NCName</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>language</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>anyURI</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>ID</td><td>Identity constraint is not enforced.</td></tr>
    <tr><td>IDREF</td><td>Identity constraint is not enforced.</td></tr>

    <tr><td>NMTOKENS</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>IDREFS</td><td>Identity constraint is not enforced.</td></tr>

    <tr><td>QName</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>base64Binary</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>hexBinary</td><td></td></tr>

    <tr><td>date</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>dateTime</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>duration</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>gDay</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>gMonth</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>gMonthDay</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>gYear</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>gYearMonth</td><td></td></tr>
    <tr><td>time</td><td></td></tr>
  </table>


  </div>
</div>

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</html>