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+ <title>C++/Tree Mapping User Manual</title>
+
+ <meta name="copyright" content="&copy; 2005-2009 Code Synthesis Tools CC"/>
+ <meta name="keywords" content="xsd,xml,schema,c++,mapping,data,binding,tree,serialization,guide,manual,examples"/>
+ <meta name="description" content="C++/Tree Mapping User Manual"/>
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+<body>
+<div id="container">
+ <div id="content">
+
+ <div class="noprint">
+
+ <div id="titlepage">
+ <div id="title">C++/Tree Mapping User Manual</div>
+
+ <p>Copyright &copy; 2005-2009 CODE SYNTHESIS TOOLS CC</p>
+
+ <p>Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
+ document under the terms of the
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/licenses/fdl-1.2.txt">GNU Free
+ Documentation License, version 1.2</a>; with no Invariant Sections,
+ no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>This document is available in the following formats:
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/index.xhtml">XHTML</a>,
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/cxx-tree-manual.pdf">PDF</a>, and
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/cxx-tree-manual.ps">PostScript</a>.</p>
+ </div>
+
+ <h1>Table of Contents</h1>
+
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr>
+ <th></th><td><a href="#0">Preface</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th></th><td><a href="#0.1">About This Document</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th></th><td><a href="#0.2">More Information</a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th>1</th><td><a href="#1">Introduction</a></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th>2</th><td><a href="#2">C++/Tree Mapping</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.1</th><td><a href="#2.1">Preliminary Information</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>2.1.1</th><td><a href="#2.1.1">Identifiers</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.1.2</th><td><a href="#2.1.2">Character Type</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.1.3</th><td><a href="#2.1.3">XML Schema Namespace</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.1.4</th><td><a href="#2.1.4">Anonymous Types</a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.2</th><td><a href="#2.2">Error Handling</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>2.2.1</th><td><a href="#2.2.1"><code>xml_schema::duplicate_id</code></a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.3</th><td><a href="#2.3">Mapping for <code>import</code> and <code>include</code></a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>2.3.1</th><td><a href="#2.3.1">Import</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.3.2</th><td><a href="#2.3.2">Inclusion with Target Namespace</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.3.3</th><td><a href="#2.3.3">Inclusion without Target Namespace</a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.4</th><td><a href="#2.4">Mapping for Namespaces</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.5</th><td><a href="#2.5">Mapping for Built-in Data Types</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>2.5.1</th><td><a href="#2.5.1">Inheritance from Built-in Data Types</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.2</th><td><a href="#2.5.2">Mapping for <code>anyType</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.3</th><td><a href="#2.5.3">Mapping for <code>anySimpleType</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.4</th><td><a href="#2.5.4">Mapping for <code>QName</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.5</th><td><a href="#2.5.5">Mapping for <code>IDREF</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.6</th><td><a href="#2.5.6">Mapping for <code>base64Binary</code> and <code>hexBinary</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.7</th><td><a href="#2.5.7">Time Zone Representation</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.8</th><td><a href="#2.5.8">Mapping for <code>date</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.9</th><td><a href="#2.5.9">Mapping for <code>dateTime</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.10</th><td><a href="#2.5.10">Mapping for <code>duration</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.11</th><td><a href="#2.5.11">Mapping for <code>gDay</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.12</th><td><a href="#2.5.12">Mapping for <code>gMonth</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.13</th><td><a href="#2.5.13">Mapping for <code>gMonthDay</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.14</th><td><a href="#2.5.14">Mapping for <code>gYear</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.15</th><td><a href="#2.5.15">Mapping for <code>gYearMonth</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.5.16</th><td><a href="#2.5.16">Mapping for <code>time</code></a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.6</th><td><a href="#2.6">Mapping for Simple Types</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>2.6.1</th><td><a href="#2.6.1">Mapping for Derivation by Restriction</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.6.2</th><td><a href="#2.6.2">Mapping for Enumerations</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.6.3</th><td><a href="#2.6.3">Mapping for Derivation by List</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.6.4</th><td><a href="#2.6.4">Mapping for Derivation by Union</a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.7</th><td><a href="#2.7">Mapping for Complex Types</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>2.7.1</th><td><a href="#2.7.1">Mapping for Derivation by Extension</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.7.2</th><td><a href="#2.7.2">Mapping for Derivation by Restriction</a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.8</th><td><a href="#2.8">Mapping for Local Elements and Attributes</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>2.8.1</th><td><a href="#2.8.1">Mapping for Members with the One Cardinality Class</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.8.2</th><td><a href="#2.8.2">Mapping for Members with the Optional Cardinality Class</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.8.3</th><td><a href="#2.8.3">Mapping for Members with the Sequence Cardinality Class</a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.9</th><td><a href="#2.9">Mapping for Global Elements</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>2.9.1</th><td><a href="#2.9.1">Element Types</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.9.2</th><td><a href="#2.9.2">Element Map</a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.10</th><td><a href="#2.10">Mapping for Global Attributes</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.11</th><td><a href="#2.11">Mapping for <code>xsi:type</code> and Substitution Groups</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.12</th><td><a href="#2.12">Mapping for <code>any</code> and <code>anyAttribute</code></a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>2.12.1</th><td><a href="#2.12.1">Mapping for <code>any</code> with the One Cardinality Class</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.12.2</th><td><a href="#2.12.2">Mapping for <code>any</code> with the Optional Cardinality Class</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.12.3</th><td><a href="#2.12.3">Mapping for <code>any</code> with the Sequence Cardinality Class</a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>2.12.4</th><td><a href="#2.12.4">Mapping for <code>anyAttribute</code></a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>2.13</th><td><a href="#2.13">Mapping for Mixed Content Models</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th>3</th><td><a href="#3">Parsing</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr>
+ <th>3.1</th><td><a href="#3.1">Initializing the Xerces-C++ Runtime</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>3.2</th><td><a href="#3.2">Flags and Properties</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>3.3</th><td><a href="#3.3">Error Handling</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>3.3.1</th><td><a href="#3.3.1"><code>xml_schema::parsing</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>3.3.2</th><td><a href="#3.3.2"><code>xml_schema::expected_element</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>3.3.3</th><td><a href="#3.3.3"><code>xml_schema::unexpected_element</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>3.3.4</th><td><a href="#3.3.4"><code>xml_schema::expected_attribute</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>3.3.5</th><td><a href="#3.3.5"><code>xml_schema::unexpected_enumerator</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>3.3.6</th><td><a href="#3.3.6"><code>xml_schema::expected_text_content</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>3.3.7</th><td><a href="#3.3.7"><code>xml_schema::no_type_info</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>3.3.8</th><td><a href="#3.3.8"><code>xml_schema::not_derived</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>3.3.9</th><td><a href="#3.3.9"><code>xml_schema::not_prefix_mapping</code></a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>3.4</th><td><a href="#3.4">Reading from a Local File or URI</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>3.5</th><td><a href="#3.5">Reading from <code>std::istream</code></a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>3.6</th><td><a href="#3.6">Reading from <code>xercesc::InputSource</code></a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>3.7</th><td><a href="#3.7">Reading from DOM</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th>4</th><td><a href="#4">Serialization</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr>
+ <th>4.1</th><td><a href="#4.1">Initializing the Xerces-C++ Runtime</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>4.2</th><td><a href="#4.2">Namespace Infomap and Character Encoding</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>4.3</th><td><a href="#4.3">Flags</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>4.4</th><td><a href="#4.4">Error Handling</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr><th>4.4.1</th><td><a href="#4.4.1"><code>xml_schema::serialization</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>4.4.2</th><td><a href="#4.4.2"><code>xml_schema::unexpected_element</code></a></td></tr>
+ <tr><th>4.4.3</th><td><a href="#4.4.3"><code>xml_schema::no_type_info</code></a></td></tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>4.5</th><td><a href="#4.5">Serializing to <code>std::ostream</code></a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>4.6</th><td><a href="#4.6">Serializing to <code>xercesc::XMLFormatTarget</code></a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>4.7</th><td><a href="#4.7">Serializing to DOM</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th>5</th><td><a href="#5">Additional Functionality</a>
+ <table class="toc">
+ <tr>
+ <th>5.1</th><td><a href="#5.1">DOM Association</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <th>5.2</th><td><a href="#5.2">Binary Serialization</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ </table>
+ </td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th></th><td><a href="#A">Appendix A &mdash; Default and Fixed Values</a></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ </table>
+ </div>
+
+ <h1><a name="0">Preface</a></h1>
+
+ <h2><a name="0.1">About This Document</a></h2>
+
+ <p>This document describes the mapping of W3C XML Schema
+ to the C++ programming language as implemented by
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/products/xsd">CodeSynthesis
+ XSD</a> - an XML Schema to C++ data binding compiler. The mapping
+ represents information stored in XML instance documents as a
+ statically-typed, tree-like in-memory data structure and is
+ called C++/Tree.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Revision 2.3.0<br/> <!-- Remember to change revision in other places -->
+ This revision of the manual describes the C++/Tree
+ mapping as implemented by CodeSynthesis XSD version 3.3.0.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>This document is available in the following formats:
+ <a href="http://codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/index.xhtml">XHTML</a>,
+ <a href="http://codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/cxx-tree-manual.pdf">PDF</a>, and
+ <a href="http://codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/cxx-tree-manual.ps">PostScript</a>.</p>
+
+ <h2><a name="0.2">More Information</a></h2>
+
+ <p>Beyond this manual, you may also find the following sources of
+ information useful:</p>
+
+ <ul class="list">
+ <li><a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/guide/">C++/Tree
+ Mapping Getting Started Guide</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="http://wiki.codesynthesis.com/Tree/Customization_guide">C++/Tree
+ Mapping Customization Guide</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/dbxml/">C++/Tree
+ Mapping and Berkeley DB XML Integration Guide</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="http://wiki.codesynthesis.com/Tree/FAQ">C++/Tree
+ Mapping Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)</a></li>
+
+ <li><a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
+ Compiler Command Line Manual</a></li>
+
+ <li>The <code>examples/cxx/tree/</code> directory in the XSD
+ distribution contains a collection of examples and a README
+ file with an overview of each example.</li>
+
+ <li>The <code>README</code> file in the XSD distribution explains
+ how to compile the examples on various platforms.</li>
+
+ <li>The <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/mailman/listinfo/xsd-users">xsd-users</a>
+ mailing list is a place to ask questions. Furthermore the
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/pipermail/xsd-users/">archives</a>
+ may already have answers to some of your questions.</li>
+
+ </ul>
+
+
+ <h1><a name="1">1 Introduction</a></h1>
+
+ <p>C++/Tree is a W3C XML Schema to C++ mapping that represents the
+ data stored in XML as a statically-typed, vocabulary-specific
+ object model. Based on a formal description of an XML vocabulary
+ (schema), the C++/Tree mapping produces a tree-like data structure
+ suitable for in-memory processing as well as XML parsing and
+ serialization code.</p>
+
+ <p>A typical application that processes XML documents usually
+ performs the following three steps: it first reads (parses) an XML
+ instance document to an object model, it then performs
+ some useful computations on that model which may involve
+ modification of the model, and finally it may write (serialize)
+ the modified object model back to XML.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The C++/Tree mapping consists of C++ types that represent the
+ given vocabulary (<a href="#2">Chapter 2, "C++/Tree Mapping"</a>),
+ a set of parsing functions that convert XML documents to
+ a tree-like in-memory data structure (<a href="#3">Chapter 3,
+ "Parsing"</a>), and a set of serialization functions that convert
+ the object model back to XML (<a href="#4">Chapter 4,
+ "Serialization"</a>). Furthermore, the mapping provides a number
+ of additional features, such as DOM association and binary
+ serialization, that can be useful in some applications
+ (<a href="#5">Chapter 5, "Additional Functionality"</a>).
+ </p>
+
+
+ <!-- Chapter 2 -->
+
+
+ <h1><a name="2">2 C++/Tree Mapping</a></h1>
+
+ <h2><a name="2.1">2.1 Preliminary Information</a></h2>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.1.1">2.1.1 Identifiers</a></h3>
+
+ <p>XML Schema names may happen to be reserved C++ keywords or contain
+ characters that are illegal in C++ identifiers. To avoid C++ compilation
+ problems, such names are changed (escaped) when mapped to C++. If an
+ XML Schema name is a C++ keyword, the "_" suffix is added to it. All
+ character of an XML Schema name that are not allowed in C++ identifiers
+ are replaced with "_".
+ </p>
+
+ <p>For example, XML Schema name <code>try</code> will be mapped to
+ C++ identifier <code>try_</code>. Similarly, XML Schema name
+ <code>strange.na-me</code> will be mapped to C++ identifier
+ <code>strange_na_me</code>.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Furthermore, conflicts between type names and function names in the
+ same scope are resolved using name escaping. Such conflicts include
+ both a global element (which is mapped to a set of parsing and/or
+ serialization functions or element types, see <a href="#2.9">Section
+ 2.9, "Mapping for Global Elements"</a>) and a global type sharing the
+ same name as well as a local element or attribute inside a type having
+ the same name as the type itself.</p>
+
+ <p>For example, if we had a global type <code>catalog</code>
+ and a global element with the same name then the type would be
+ mapped to a C++ class with name <code>catalog</code> while the
+ parsing functions corresponding to the global element would have
+ their names escaped as <code>catalog_</code>.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>By default the mapping uses the so-called K&amp;R (Kernighan and
+ Ritchie) identifier naming convention which is also used throughout
+ this manual. In this convention both type and function names are in
+ lower case and words are separated by underscores. If your application
+ code or schemas use a different notation, you may want to change the
+ naming convention used by the mapping for consistency.
+ The compiler supports a set of widely-used naming conventions
+ that you can select with the <code>--type-naming</code> and
+ <code>--function-naming</code> options. You can also further
+ refine one of the predefined conventions or create a completely
+ custom naming scheme by using the <code>--*-regex</code> options.
+ For more detailed information on these options refer to the NAMING
+ CONVENTION section in the <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
+ Compiler Command Line Manual</a>.</p>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.1.2">2.1.2 Character Type</a></h3>
+
+ <p>The code that implements the mapping, depending on the
+ <code>--char-type</code> option, is generated using either
+ <code>char</code> or <code>wchar_t</code> as the character
+ type. In this document code samples use symbol <code>C</code>
+ to refer to the character type you have selected when translating
+ your schemas, for example <code>std::basic_string&lt;C></code>.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.1.3">2.1.3 XML Schema Namespace</a></h3>
+
+ <p>The mapping relies on some predefined types, classes, and functions
+ that are logically defined in the XML Schema namespace reserved for
+ the XML Schema language (<code>http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema</code>).
+ By default, this namespace is mapped to C++ namespace
+ <code>xml_schema</code>. It is automatically accessible
+ from a C++ compilation unit that includes a header file generated
+ from an XML Schema definition.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Note that, if desired, the default mapping of this namespace can be
+ changed as described in <a href="#2.4">Section 2.4, "Mapping for
+ Namespaces"</a>.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.1.4">2.1.4 Anonymous Types</a></h3>
+
+ <p>For the purpose of code generation, anonymous types defined in
+ XML Schema are automatically assigned names that are derived
+ from enclosing attributes and elements. Otherwise, such types
+ follows standard mapping rules for simple and complex type
+ definitions (see <a href="#2.6">Section 2.6, "Mapping for Simple Types"</a>
+ and <a href="#2.7">Section 2.7, "Mapping for Complex Types"</a>).
+ For example, in the following schema fragment:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;element name="object">
+ &lt;complexType>
+ ...
+ &lt;/complexType>
+&lt;/element>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The anonymous type defined inside element <code>object</code> will
+ be given name <code>object</code>. The compiler has a number of
+ options that control the process of anonymous type naming. For more
+ information refer to the <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
+ Compiler Command Line Manual</a>.</p>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.2">2.2 Error Handling</a></h2>
+
+ <p>The mapping uses the C++ exception handling mechanism as a primary way
+ of reporting error conditions. All exceptions that are specified in
+ this mapping derive from <code>xml_schema::exception</code> which
+ itself is derived from <code>std::exception</code>:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct exception: virtual std::exception
+{
+ friend
+ std::basic_ostream&lt;C>&amp;
+ operator&lt;&lt; (std::basic_ostream&lt;C>&amp; os, const exception&amp; e)
+ {
+ e.print (os);
+ return os;
+ }
+
+protected:
+ virtual void
+ print (std::basic_ostream&lt;C>&amp;) const = 0;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The exception hierarchy supports "virtual" <code>operator&lt;&lt;</code>
+ which allows you to obtain diagnostics corresponding to the thrown
+ exception using the base exception interface. For example:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+try
+{
+ ...
+}
+catch (const xml_schema::exception&amp; e)
+{
+ cerr &lt;&lt; e &lt;&lt; endl;
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The following sub-sections describe exceptions thrown by the
+ types that constitute the object model.
+ <a href="#3.3">Section 3.3, "Error Handling"</a> of
+ <a href="#3">Chapter 3, "Parsing"</a> describes exceptions
+ and error handling mechanisms specific to the parsing functions.
+ <a href="#4.4">Section 4.4, "Error Handling"</a> of
+ <a href="#4">Chapter 4, "Serialization"</a> describes exceptions
+ and error handling mechanisms specific to the serialization functions.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.2.1">2.2.1 <code>xml_schema::duplicate_id</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct duplicate_id: virtual exception
+{
+ duplicate_id (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; id);
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ id () const;
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::duplicate_id</code> is thrown when
+ a conflicting instance of <code>xml_schema::id</code> (see
+ <a href="#2.5">Section 2.5, "Mapping for Built-in Data Types"</a>)
+ is added to a tree. The offending ID value can be obtained using
+ the <code>id</code> function.
+ </p>
+
+ <h2><a name="2.3">2.3 Mapping for <code>import</code> and <code>include</code></a></h2>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.3.1">2.3.1 Import</a></h3>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>import</code> element is mapped to the C++
+ Preprocessor <code>#include</code> directive. The value of
+ the <code>schemaLocation</code> attribute is used to derive
+ the name of the header file that appears in the <code>#include</code>
+ directive. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;import namespace="http://www.codesynthesis.com/test"
+ schemaLocation="test.xsd"/>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+#include "test.hxx"
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>Note that you will need to compile imported schemas separately
+ in order to produce corresponding header files.</p>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.3.2">2.3.2 Inclusion with Target Namespace</a></h3>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>include</code> element which refers to a schema
+ with a target namespace or appears in a schema without a target namespace
+ follows the same mapping rules as the <code>import</code> element,
+ see <a href="#2.3.1">Section 2.3.1, "Import"</a>.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.3.3">2.3.3 Inclusion without Target Namespace</a></h3>
+
+ <p>For the XML Schema <code>include</code> element which refers to a schema
+ without a target namespace and appears in a schema with a target
+ namespace (such inclusion sometimes called "chameleon inclusion"),
+ declarations and definitions from the included schema are generated
+ in-line in the namespace of the including schema as if they were
+ declared and defined there verbatim. For example, consider the
+ following two schemas:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;-- common.xsd -->
+&lt;schema>
+ &lt;complexType name="type">
+ ...
+ &lt;/complexType>
+&lt;/schema>
+
+&lt;-- test.xsd -->
+&lt;schema targetNamespace="http://www.codesynthesis.com/test">
+ &lt;include schemaLocation="common.xsd"/>
+&lt;/schema>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The fragment of interest from the generated header file for
+ <code>text.xsd</code> would look like this:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+// test.hxx
+namespace test
+{
+ class type
+ {
+ ...
+ };
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <h2><a name="2.4">2.4 Mapping for Namespaces</a></h2>
+
+ <p>An XML Schema namespace is mapped to one or more nested C++
+ namespaces. XML Schema namespaces are identified by URIs.
+ By default, a namespace URI is mapped to a sequence of
+ C++ namespace names by removing the protocol and host parts
+ and splitting the rest into a sequence of names with '<code>/</code>'
+ as the name separator. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;schema targetNamespace="http://www.codesynthesis.com/system/test">
+ ...
+&lt;/schema>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+namespace system
+{
+ namespace test
+ {
+ ...
+ }
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The default mapping of namespace URIs to C++ namespace names can be
+ altered using the <code>--namespace-map</code> and
+ <code>--namespace-regex</code> options. See the
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
+ Compiler Command Line Manual</a> for more information.
+ </p>
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5">2.5 Mapping for Built-in Data Types</a></h2>
+
+ <p>The mapping of XML Schema built-in data types to C++ types is
+ summarized in the table below.</p>
+
+ <!-- border="1" is necessary for html2ps -->
+ <table id="builtin" border="1">
+ <tr>
+ <th>XML Schema type</th>
+ <th>Alias in the <code>xml_schema</code> namespace</th>
+ <th>C++ type</th>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">anyType and anySimpleType types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>anyType</code></td>
+ <td><code>type</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.2">Section 2.5.2, "Mapping for <code>anyType</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>anySimpleType</code></td>
+ <td><code>simple_type</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.3">Section 2.5.3, "Mapping for <code>anySimpleType</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">fixed-length integral types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <!-- 8-bit -->
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>byte</code></td>
+ <td><code>byte</code></td>
+ <td><code>signed&nbsp;char</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>unsignedByte</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned_byte</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;char</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <!-- 16-bit -->
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>short</code></td>
+ <td><code>short_</code></td>
+ <td><code>short</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>unsignedShort</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned_short</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;short</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <!-- 32-bit -->
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>int</code></td>
+ <td><code>int_</code></td>
+ <td><code>int</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>unsignedInt</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned_int</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;int</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <!-- 64-bit -->
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>long</code></td>
+ <td><code>long_</code></td>
+ <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>unsignedLong</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned_long</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned&nbsp;long&nbsp;long</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">arbitrary-length integral types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>integer</code></td>
+ <td><code>integer</code></td>
+ <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>nonPositiveInteger</code></td>
+ <td><code>non_positive_integer</code></td>
+ <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>nonNegativeInteger</code></td>
+ <td><code>non_negative_integer</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned long&nbsp;long</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>positiveInteger</code></td>
+ <td><code>positive_integer</code></td>
+ <td><code>unsigned long&nbsp;long</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>negativeInteger</code></td>
+ <td><code>negative_integer</code></td>
+ <td><code>long&nbsp;long</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">boolean types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>boolean</code></td>
+ <td><code>boolean</code></td>
+ <td><code>bool</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">fixed-precision floating-point types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>float</code></td>
+ <td><code>float_</code></td>
+ <td><code>float</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>double</code></td>
+ <td><code>double_</code></td>
+ <td><code>double</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">arbitrary-precision floating-point types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>decimal</code></td>
+ <td><code>decimal</code></td>
+ <td><code>double</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">string types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>string</code></td>
+ <td><code>string</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>std::basic_string</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>normalizedString</code></td>
+ <td><code>normalized_string</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>string</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>token</code></td>
+ <td><code>token</code></td>
+ <td>type&nbsp;derived&nbsp;from&nbsp;<code>normalized_string</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>Name</code></td>
+ <td><code>name</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>token</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>NMTOKEN</code></td>
+ <td><code>nmtoken</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>token</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>NMTOKENS</code></td>
+ <td><code>nmtokens</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>sequence&lt;nmtoken></code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>NCName</code></td>
+ <td><code>ncname</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>name</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>language</code></td>
+ <td><code>language</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>token</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">qualified name</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>QName</code></td>
+ <td><code>qname</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.4">Section 2.5.4, "Mapping for <code>QName</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">ID/IDREF types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>ID</code></td>
+ <td><code>id</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>ncname</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>IDREF</code></td>
+ <td><code>idref</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.5">Section 2.5.5, "Mapping for <code>IDREF</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>IDREFS</code></td>
+ <td><code>idrefs</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>sequence&lt;idref></code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">URI types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>anyURI</code></td>
+ <td><code>uri</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>std::basic_string</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">binary types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>base64Binary</code></td>
+ <td><code>base64_binary</code></td>
+ <td rowspan="2"><a href="#2.5.6">Section 2.5.6, "Mapping for
+ <code>base64Binary</code> and <code>hexBinary</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>hexBinary</code></td>
+ <td><code>hex_binary</code></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">date/time types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>date</code></td>
+ <td><code>date</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.8">Section 2.5.8, "Mapping for
+ <code>date</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>dateTime</code></td>
+ <td><code>date_time</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.9">Section 2.5.9, "Mapping for
+ <code>dateTime</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>duration</code></td>
+ <td><code>duration</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.10">Section 2.5.10, "Mapping for
+ <code>duration</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>gDay</code></td>
+ <td><code>gday</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.11">Section 2.5.11, "Mapping for
+ <code>gDay</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>gMonth</code></td>
+ <td><code>gmonth</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.12">Section 2.5.12, "Mapping for
+ <code>gMonth</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>gMonthDay</code></td>
+ <td><code>gmonth_day</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.13">Section 2.5.13, "Mapping for
+ <code>gMonthDay</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>gYear</code></td>
+ <td><code>gyear</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.14">Section 2.5.14, "Mapping for
+ <code>gYear</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>gYearMonth</code></td>
+ <td><code>gyear_month</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.15">Section 2.5.15, "Mapping for
+ <code>gYearMonth</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>time</code></td>
+ <td><code>time</code></td>
+ <td><a href="#2.5.16">Section 2.5.16, "Mapping for
+ <code>time</code>"</a></td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th colspan="3">entity types</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>ENTITY</code></td>
+ <td><code>entity</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>name</code></td>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td><code>ENTITIES</code></td>
+ <td><code>entities</code></td>
+ <td>type derived from <code>sequence&lt;entity></code></td>
+ </tr>
+ </table>
+
+ <p>All XML Schema built-in types are mapped to C++ classes that are
+ derived from the <code>xml_schema::simple_type</code> class except
+ where the mapping is to a fundamental C++ type.</p>
+
+ <p>The <code>sequence</code> class template is defined in an
+ implementation-specific namespace. It conforms to the
+ sequence interface as defined by the ISO/ANSI Standard for
+ C++ (ISO/IEC 14882:1998, Section 23.1.1, "Sequences").
+ Practically, this means that you can treat such a sequence
+ as if it was <code>std::vector</code>. One notable extension
+ to the standard interface that is available only for
+ sequences of non-fundamental C++ types is the addition of
+ the overloaded <code>push_back</code> and <code>insert</code>
+ member functions which instead of the constant reference
+ to the element type accept automatic pointer to the element
+ type. These functions assume ownership of the pointed to
+ object and resets the passed automatic pointer.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.5.1">2.5.1 Inheritance from Built-in Data Types</a></h3>
+
+ <p>In cases where the mapping calls for an inheritance from a built-in
+ type which is mapped to a fundamental C++ type, a proxy type is
+ used instead of the fundamental C++ type (C++ does not allow
+ inheritance from fundamental types). For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;simpleType name="my_int">
+ &lt;restriction base="int"/>
+&lt;/simpleType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class my_int: public fundamental_base&lt;int>
+{
+ ...
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>fundamental_base</code> class template provides a close
+ emulation (though not exact) of a fundamental C++ type.
+ It is defined in an implementation-specific namespace and has the
+ following interface:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+template &lt;typename X>
+class fundamental_base: public simple_type
+{
+public:
+ fundamental_base ();
+ fundamental_base (X)
+ fundamental_base (const fundamental_base&amp;)
+
+public:
+ fundamental_base&amp;
+ operator= (const X&amp;);
+
+public:
+ operator const X &amp; () const;
+ operator X&amp; ();
+
+ template &lt;typename Y>
+ operator Y () const;
+
+ template &lt;typename Y>
+ operator Y ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.5.2">2.5.2 Mapping for <code>anyType</code></a></h3>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>anyType</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::type</code> C++ class:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class type
+{
+public:
+ virtual
+ ~type ();
+
+public:
+ type ();
+ type (const type&amp;);
+
+public:
+ type&amp;
+ operator= (const type&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual type*
+ _clone () const;
+
+ // DOM association.
+ //
+public:
+ const xercesc::DOMNode*
+ _node () const;
+
+ xercesc::DOMNode*
+ _node ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>For more information about DOM association refer to
+ <a href="#5.1">Section 5.1, "DOM Association"</a>.</p>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.5.3">2.5.3 Mapping for <code>anySimpleType</code></a></h3>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>anySimpleType</code> built-in data type is mapped
+ to the <code>xml_schema::simple_type</code> C++ class:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class simple_type: public type
+{
+public:
+ simple_type ();
+ simple_type (const simple_type&amp;);
+
+public:
+ simple_type&amp;
+ operator= (const simple_type&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual simple_type*
+ _clone () const;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.5.4">2.5.4 Mapping for <code>QName</code></a></h3>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>QName</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::qname</code> C++ class:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class qname: public simple_type
+{
+public:
+ qname (const ncname&amp;);
+ qname (const uri&amp;, const ncname&amp;);
+ qname (const qname&amp;);
+
+public:
+ qname&amp;
+ operator= (const qname&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual qname*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ bool
+ qualified () const;
+
+ const uri&amp;
+ namespace_ () const;
+
+ const ncname&amp;
+ name () const;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>qualified</code> accessor function can be used to determine
+ if the name is qualified.</p>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.5.5">2.5.5 Mapping for <code>IDREF</code></a></h3>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>IDREF</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::idref</code> C++ class. This class implements the
+ smart pointer C++ idiom:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class idref: public ncname
+{
+public:
+ idref (const C* s);
+ idref (const C* s, std::size_t n);
+ idref (std::size_t n, C c);
+ idref (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;);
+ idref (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;,
+ std::size_t pos,
+ std::size_t n = npos);
+
+public:
+ idref (const idref&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual idref*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ idref&amp;
+ operator= (C c);
+
+ idref&amp;
+ operator= (const C* s);
+
+ idref&amp;
+ operator= (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;)
+
+ idref&amp;
+ operator= (const idref&amp;);
+
+public:
+ const type*
+ operator-> () const;
+
+ type*
+ operator-> ();
+
+ const type&amp;
+ operator* () const;
+
+ type&amp;
+ operator* ();
+
+ const type*
+ get () const;
+
+ type*
+ get ();
+
+ // Conversion to bool.
+ //
+public:
+ typedef void (idref::*bool_convertible)();
+ operator bool_convertible () const;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The object, <code>idref</code> instance refers to, is the immediate
+ container of the matching <code>id</code> instance. For example,
+ with the following instance document and schema:
+ </p>
+
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;!-- test.xml -->
+&lt;root>
+ &lt;object id="obj-1" text="hello"/>
+ &lt;reference>obj-1&lt;/reference>
+&lt;/root>
+
+&lt;!-- test.xsd -->
+&lt;schema>
+ &lt;complexType name="object_type">
+ &lt;attribute name="id" type="ID"/>
+ &lt;attribute name="text" type="string"/>
+ &lt;/complexType>
+
+ &lt;complexType name="root_type">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="object" type="object_type"/>
+ &lt;element name="reference" type="IDREF"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+ &lt;/complexType>
+
+ &lt;element name="root" type="root_type"/>
+&lt;/schema>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>ref</code> instance in the code below will refer to
+ an object of type <code>object_type</code>:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+root_type&amp; root = ...;
+xml_schema::idref&amp; ref (root.reference ());
+object_type&amp; obj (dynamic_cast&lt;object_type&amp;> (*ref));
+cout &lt;&lt; obj.text () &lt;&lt; endl;
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The smart pointer interface of the <code>idref</code> class always
+ returns a pointer or reference to <code>xml_schema::type</code>.
+ This means that you will need to manually cast such pointer or
+ reference to its real (dynamic) type before you can use it (unless
+ all you need is the base interface provided by
+ <code>xml_schema::type</code>). As a special extension to the XML
+ Schema language, the mapping supports static typing of <code>idref</code>
+ references by employing the <code>refType</code> extension attribute.
+ The following example illustrates this mechanism:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;!-- test.xsd -->
+&lt;schema
+ xmlns:xse="http://www.codesynthesis.com/xmlns/xml-schema-extension">
+
+ ...
+
+ &lt;element name="reference" type="IDREF" xse:refType="object_type"/>
+
+ ...
+
+&lt;/schema>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>With this modification we do not need to do manual casting anymore:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+root_type&amp; root = ...;
+root_type::reference_type&amp; ref (root.reference ());
+object_type&amp; obj (*ref);
+cout &lt;&lt; ref->text () &lt;&lt; endl;
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.5.6">2.5.6 Mapping for <code>base64Binary</code> and
+ <code>hexBinary</code></a></h3>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>base64Binary</code> and <code>hexBinary</code>
+ built-in data types are mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::base64_binary</code> and
+ <code>xml_schema::hex_binary</code> C++ classes, respectively. The
+ <code>base64_binary</code> and <code>hex_binary</code> classes
+ support a simple buffer abstraction by inheriting from the
+ <code>xml_schema::buffer</code> class:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class bounds: public virtual exception
+{
+public:
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+
+class buffer
+{
+public:
+ typedef std::size_t size_t;
+
+public:
+ buffer (size_t size = 0);
+ buffer (size_t size, size_t capacity);
+ buffer (const void* data, size_t size);
+ buffer (const void* data, size_t size, size_t capacity);
+ buffer (void* data,
+ size_t size,
+ size_t capacity,
+ bool assume_ownership);
+
+public:
+ buffer (const buffer&amp;);
+
+ buffer&amp;
+ operator= (const buffer&amp;);
+
+ void
+ swap (buffer&amp;);
+
+public:
+ size_t
+ capacity () const;
+
+ bool
+ capacity (size_t);
+
+public:
+ size_t
+ size () const;
+
+ bool
+ size (size_t);
+
+public:
+ const char*
+ data () const;
+
+ char*
+ data ();
+
+ const char*
+ begin () const;
+
+ char*
+ begin ();
+
+ const char*
+ end () const;
+
+ char*
+ end ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>If the <code>assume_ownership</code> argument to the constructor
+ is <code>true</code>, the instance assumes ownership of the
+ memory block pointed to by the <code>data</code> argument and will
+ eventually release it by calling <code>operator delete</code>. The
+ <code>capacity</code> and <code>size</code> modifier functions return
+ <code>true</code> if the underlying buffer has moved.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The <code>bounds</code> exception is thrown if the constructor
+ arguments violate the <code>(size&nbsp;&lt;=&nbsp;capacity)</code>
+ constraint.</p>
+
+ <p>The <code>base64_binary</code> and <code>hex_binary</code> classes
+ support the <code>buffer</code> interface and perform automatic
+ decoding/encoding from/to the Base64 and Hex formats, respectively:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class base64_binary: public simple_type, public buffer
+{
+public:
+ base64_binary (size_t size = 0);
+ base64_binary (size_t size, size_t capacity);
+ base64_binary (const void* data, size_t size);
+ base64_binary (const void* data, size_t size, size_t capacity);
+ base64_binary (void* data,
+ size_t size,
+ size_t capacity,
+ bool assume_ownership);
+
+public:
+ base64_binary (const base64_binary&amp;);
+
+ base64_binary&amp;
+ operator= (const base64_binary&amp;);
+
+ virtual base64_binary*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ std::basic_string&lt;C>
+ encode () const;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class hex_binary: public simple_type, public buffer
+{
+public:
+ hex_binary (size_t size = 0);
+ hex_binary (size_t size, size_t capacity);
+ hex_binary (const void* data, size_t size);
+ hex_binary (const void* data, size_t size, size_t capacity);
+ hex_binary (void* data,
+ size_t size,
+ size_t capacity,
+ bool assume_ownership);
+
+public:
+ hex_binary (const hex_binary&amp;);
+
+ hex_binary&amp;
+ operator= (const hex_binary&amp;);
+
+ virtual hex_binary*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ std::basic_string&lt;C>
+ encode () const;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.7">2.5.7 Time Zone Representation</a></h2>
+
+ <p>The <code>date</code>, <code>dateTime</code>, <code>gDay</code>,
+ <code>gMonth</code>, <code>gMonthDay</code>, <code>gYear</code>,
+ <code>gYearMonth</code>, and <code>time</code> XML Schema built-in
+ types all include an optional time zone component. The following
+ <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code> base class is used to represent
+ this information:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class time_zone
+{
+public:
+ time_zone ();
+ time_zone (short hours, short minutes);
+
+ bool
+ zone_present () const;
+
+ void
+ zone_reset ();
+
+ short
+ zone_hours () const;
+
+ void
+ zone_hours (short);
+
+ short
+ zone_minutes () const;
+
+ void
+ zone_minutes (short);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const time_zone&amp;, const time_zone&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const time_zone&amp;, const time_zone&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>zone_present()</code> accessor function returns <code>true</code>
+ if the time zone is specified. The <code>zone_reset()</code> modifier
+ function resets the time zone object to the <em>not specified</em>
+ state. If the time zone offset is negative then both hours and
+ minutes components are represented as negative integers.</p>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.8">2.5.8 Mapping for <code>date</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>date</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::date</code> C++ class which represents a year, a day,
+ and a month with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented
+ below. For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
+ class refer to <a href="#2.5.7">Section 2.5.7, "Time Zone
+ Representation"</a>.</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class date: public simple_type, public time_zone
+{
+public:
+ date (int year, unsigned short month, unsigned short day);
+ date (int year, unsigned short month, unsigned short day,
+ short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);
+
+public:
+ date (const date&amp;);
+
+ date&amp;
+ operator= (const date&amp;);
+
+ virtual date*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ int
+ year () const;
+
+ void
+ year (int);
+
+ unsigned short
+ month () const;
+
+ void
+ month (unsigned short);
+
+ unsigned short
+ day () const;
+
+ void
+ day (unsigned short);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const date&amp;, const date&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const date&amp;, const date&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.9">2.5.9 Mapping for <code>dateTime</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>dateTime</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::date_time</code> C++ class which represents a year, a month,
+ a day, hours, minutes, and seconds with an optional time zone. Its interface
+ is presented below. For more information on the base
+ <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code> class refer to <a href="#2.5.7">Section
+ 2.5.7, "Time Zone Representation"</a>.</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class date_time: public simple_type, public time_zone
+{
+public:
+ date_time (int year, unsigned short month, unsigned short day,
+ unsigned short hours, unsigned short minutes,
+ double seconds);
+
+ date_time (int year, unsigned short month, unsigned short day,
+ unsigned short hours, unsigned short minutes,
+ double seconds, short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);
+public:
+ date_time (const date_time&amp;);
+
+ date_time&amp;
+ operator= (const date_time&amp;);
+
+ virtual date_time*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ int
+ year () const;
+
+ void
+ year (int);
+
+ unsigned short
+ month () const;
+
+ void
+ month (unsigned short);
+
+ unsigned short
+ day () const;
+
+ void
+ day (unsigned short);
+
+ unsigned short
+ hours () const;
+
+ void
+ hours (unsigned short);
+
+ unsigned short
+ minutes () const;
+
+ void
+ minutes (unsigned short);
+
+ double
+ seconds () const;
+
+ void
+ seconds (double);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const date_time&amp;, const date_time&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const date_time&amp;, const date_time&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.10">2.5.10 Mapping for <code>duration</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>duration</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::duration</code> C++ class which represents a potentially
+ negative duration in the form of years, months, days, hours, minutes,
+ and seconds. Its interface is presented below.</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class duration: public simple_type
+{
+public:
+ duration (bool negative,
+ unsigned int years, unsigned int months, unsigned int days,
+ unsigned int hours, unsigned int minutes, double seconds);
+public:
+ duration (const duration&amp;);
+
+ duration&amp;
+ operator= (const duration&amp;);
+
+ virtual duration*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ bool
+ negative () const;
+
+ void
+ negative (bool);
+
+ unsigned int
+ years () const;
+
+ void
+ years (unsigned int);
+
+ unsigned int
+ months () const;
+
+ void
+ months (unsigned int);
+
+ unsigned int
+ days () const;
+
+ void
+ days (unsigned int);
+
+ unsigned int
+ hours () const;
+
+ void
+ hours (unsigned int);
+
+ unsigned int
+ minutes () const;
+
+ void
+ minutes (unsigned int);
+
+ double
+ seconds () const;
+
+ void
+ seconds (double);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const duration&amp;, const duration&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const duration&amp;, const duration&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.11">2.5.11 Mapping for <code>gDay</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>gDay</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::gday</code> C++ class which represents a day of the
+ month with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below.
+ For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
+ class refer to <a href="#2.5.7">Section 2.5.7, "Time Zone
+ Representation"</a>.</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class gday: public simple_type, public time_zone
+{
+public:
+ explicit
+ gday (unsigned short day);
+ gday (unsigned short day, short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);
+
+public:
+ gday (const gday&amp;);
+
+ gday&amp;
+ operator= (const gday&amp;);
+
+ virtual gday*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ unsigned short
+ day () const;
+
+ void
+ day (unsigned short);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const gday&amp;, const gday&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const gday&amp;, const gday&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.12">2.5.12 Mapping for <code>gMonth</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>gMonth</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::gmonth</code> C++ class which represents a month of the
+ year with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below.
+ For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
+ class refer to <a href="#2.5.7">Section 2.5.7, "Time Zone
+ Representation"</a>.</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class gmonth: public simple_type, public time_zone
+{
+public:
+ explicit
+ gmonth (unsigned short month);
+ gmonth (unsigned short month,
+ short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);
+
+public:
+ gmonth (const gmonth&amp;);
+
+ gmonth&amp;
+ operator= (const gmonth&amp;);
+
+ virtual gmonth*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ unsigned short
+ month () const;
+
+ void
+ month (unsigned short);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const gmonth&amp;, const gmonth&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const gmonth&amp;, const gmonth&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.13">2.5.13 Mapping for <code>gMonthDay</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>gMonthDay</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::gmonth_day</code> C++ class which represents a day and
+ a month of the year with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented
+ below. For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
+ class refer to <a href="#2.5.7">Section 2.5.7, "Time Zone
+ Representation"</a>.</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class gmonth_day: public simple_type, public time_zone
+{
+public:
+ gmonth_day (unsigned short month, unsigned short day);
+ gmonth_day (unsigned short month, unsigned short day,
+ short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);
+
+public:
+ gmonth_day (const gmonth_day&amp;);
+
+ gmonth_day&amp;
+ operator= (const gmonth_day&amp;);
+
+ virtual gmonth_day*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ unsigned short
+ month () const;
+
+ void
+ month (unsigned short);
+
+ unsigned short
+ day () const;
+
+ void
+ day (unsigned short);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const gmonth_day&amp;, const gmonth_day&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const gmonth_day&amp;, const gmonth_day&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.14">2.5.14 Mapping for <code>gYear</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>gYear</code> built-in data type is mapped to the
+ <code>xml_schema::gyear</code> C++ class which represents a year with
+ an optional time zone. Its interface is presented below. For more
+ information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code> class refer
+ to <a href="#2.5.7">Section 2.5.7, "Time Zone Representation"</a>.</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class gyear: public simple_type, public time_zone
+{
+public:
+ explicit
+ gyear (int year);
+ gyear (int year, short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);
+
+public:
+ gyear (const gyear&amp;);
+
+ gyear&amp;
+ operator= (const gyear&amp;);
+
+ virtual gyear*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ int
+ year () const;
+
+ void
+ year (int);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const gyear&amp;, const gyear&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const gyear&amp;, const gyear&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.15">2.5.15 Mapping for <code>gYearMonth</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>gYearMonth</code> built-in data type is mapped to
+ the <code>xml_schema::gyear_month</code> C++ class which represents
+ a year and a month with an optional time zone. Its interface is presented
+ below. For more information on the base <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code>
+ class refer to <a href="#2.5.7">Section 2.5.7, "Time Zone
+ Representation"</a>.</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class gyear_month: public simple_type, public time_zone
+{
+public:
+ gyear_month (int year, unsigned short month);
+ gyear_month (int year, unsigned short month,
+ short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);
+public:
+ gyear_month (const gyear_month&amp;);
+
+ gyear_month&amp;
+ operator= (const gyear_month&amp;);
+
+ virtual gyear_month*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ int
+ year () const;
+
+ void
+ year (int);
+
+ unsigned short
+ month () const;
+
+ void
+ month (unsigned short);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const gyear_month&amp;, const gyear_month&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const gyear_month&amp;, const gyear_month&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.5.16">2.5.16 Mapping for <code>time</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>The XML Schema <code>time</code> built-in data type is mapped to
+ the <code>xml_schema::time</code> C++ class which represents hours,
+ minutes, and seconds with an optional time zone. Its interface is
+ presented below. For more information on the base
+ <code>xml_schema::time_zone</code> class refer to
+ <a href="#2.5.7">Section 2.5.7, "Time Zone Representation"</a>.</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class time: public simple_type, public time_zone
+{
+public:
+ time (unsigned short hours, unsigned short minutes, double seconds);
+ time (unsigned short hours, unsigned short minutes, double seconds,
+ short zone_hours, short zone_minutes);
+
+public:
+ time (const time&amp;);
+
+ time&amp;
+ operator= (const time&amp;);
+
+ virtual time*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ unsigned short
+ hours () const;
+
+ void
+ hours (unsigned short);
+
+ unsigned short
+ minutes () const;
+
+ void
+ minutes (unsigned short);
+
+ double
+ seconds () const;
+
+ void
+ seconds (double);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const time&amp;, const time&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const time&amp;, const time&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <!-- Mapping for Simple Types -->
+
+ <h2><a name="2.6">2.6 Mapping for Simple Types</a></h2>
+
+ <p>An XML Schema simple type is mapped to a C++ class with the same
+ name as the simple type. The class defines a public copy constructor,
+ a public copy assignment operator, and a public virtual
+ <code>_clone</code> function. The <code>_clone</code> function is
+ declared <code>const</code>, does not take any arguments, and returns
+ a pointer to a complete copy of the instance allocated in the free
+ store. The <code>_clone</code> function shall be used to make copies
+ when static type and dynamic type of the instance may differ (see
+ <a href="#2.11">Section 2.11, "Mapping for <code>xsi:type</code>
+ and Substitution Groups"</a>). For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;simpleType name="object">
+ ...
+&lt;/simpleType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: ...
+{
+public:
+ object (const object&amp;);
+
+public:
+ object&amp;
+ operator= (const object&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual object*
+ _clone () const;
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The base class specification and the rest of the class definition
+ depend on the type of derivation used to define the simple type. </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.6.1">2.6.1 Mapping for Derivation by Restriction</a></h3>
+
+ <p>XML Schema derivation by restriction is mapped to C++ public
+ inheritance. The base type of the restriction becomes the base
+ type for the resulting C++ class. In addition to the members described
+ in <a href="#2.6">Section 2.6, "Mapping for Simple Types"</a>, the
+ resulting C++ class defines a public constructor with the base type
+ as its single argument. For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;simpleType name="object">
+ &lt;restriction base="base">
+ ...
+ &lt;/restriction>
+&lt;/simpleType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: public base
+{
+public:
+ object (const base&amp;);
+ object (const object&amp;);
+
+public:
+ object&amp;
+ operator= (const object&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual object*
+ _clone () const;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.6.2">2.6.2 Mapping for Enumerations</a></h3>
+
+<p>XML Schema restriction by enumeration is mapped to a C++ class
+ with semantics similar to C++ <code>enum</code>. Each XML Schema
+ enumeration element is mapped to a C++ enumerator with the
+ name derived from the <code>value</code> attribute and defined
+ in the class scope. In addition to the members
+ described in <a href="#2.6">Section 2.6, "Mapping for Simple Types"</a>,
+ the resulting C++ class defines a public constructor that can be called
+ with one of the enumerators as its single argument, a public constructor
+ that can be called with enumeration's base value as its single
+ argument, a public assignment operator that can be used to assign the
+ value of one of the enumerators, and a public implicit conversion
+ operator to the underlying C++ enum type.</p>
+
+<p>Furthermore, for string-based enumeration types, the resulting C++
+ class defines a public constructor with a single argument of type
+ <code>const C*</code> and a public constructor with a single
+ argument of type <code>const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;</code>.
+ For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;simpleType name="color">
+ &lt;restriction base="string">
+ &lt;enumeration value="red"/>
+ &lt;enumeration value="green"/>
+ &lt;enumeration value="blue"/>
+ &lt;/restriction>
+&lt;/simpleType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class color: xml_schema::string
+{
+public:
+ enum value
+ {
+ red,
+ green,
+ blue
+ };
+
+public:
+ color (value);
+ color (const C*);
+ color (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;);
+ color (const xml_schema::string&amp;);
+ color (const color&amp;);
+
+public:
+ color&amp;
+ operator= (value);
+
+ color&amp;
+ operator= (const color&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual color*
+ _clone () const;
+
+public:
+ operator value () const;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.6.3">2.6.3 Mapping for Derivation by List</a></h3>
+
+ <p>XML Schema derivation by list is mapped to C++ public
+ inheritance from <code>xml_schema::simple_type</code>
+ (<a href="#2.5.3">Section 2.5.3, "Mapping for
+ <code>anySimpleType</code>"</a>) and a suitable sequence type.
+ The list item type becomes the element type of the sequence.
+ In addition to the members described in <a href="#2.6">Section 2.6,
+ "Mapping for Simple Types"</a>, the resulting C++ class defines
+ a public default constructor, a public constructor
+ with the first argument of type <code>size_type</code> and
+ the second argument of list item type that creates
+ a list object with the specified number of copies of the specified
+ element value, and a public constructor with the two arguments
+ of an input iterator type that creates a list object from an
+ iterator range. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;simpleType name="int_list">
+ &lt;list itemType="int"/>
+&lt;/simpleType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class int_list: public simple_type,
+ public sequence&lt;int>
+{
+public:
+ int_list ();
+ int_list (size_type n, int x);
+
+ template &lt;typename I>
+ int_list (const I&amp; begin, const I&amp; end);
+ int_list (const int_list&amp;);
+
+public:
+ int_list&amp;
+ operator= (const int_list&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual int_list*
+ _clone () const;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>sequence</code> class template is defined in an
+ implementation-specific namespace. It conforms to the
+ sequence interface as defined by the ISO/ANSI Standard for
+ C++ (ISO/IEC 14882:1998, Section 23.1.1, "Sequences").
+ Practically, this means that you can treat such a sequence
+ as if it was <code>std::vector</code>. One notable extension
+ to the standard interface that is available only for
+ sequences of non-fundamental C++ types is the addition of
+ the overloaded <code>push_back</code> and <code>insert</code>
+ member functions which instead of the constant reference
+ to the element type accept automatic pointer to the element
+ type. These functions assume ownership of the pointed to
+ object and resets the passed automatic pointer.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.6.4">2.6.4 Mapping for Derivation by Union</a></h3>
+
+ <p>XML Schema derivation by union is mapped to C++ public
+ inheritance from <code>xml_schema::simple_type</code>
+ (<a href="#2.5.3">Section 2.5.3, "Mapping for
+ <code>anySimpleType</code>"</a>) and <code>std::basic_string&lt;C></code>.
+ In addition to the members described in <a href="#2.6">Section 2.6,
+ "Mapping for Simple Types"</a>, the resulting C++ class defines a
+ public constructor with a single argument of type <code>const C*</code>
+ and a public constructor with a single argument of type
+ <code>const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;</code>. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;simpleType name="int_string_union">
+ &lt;xsd:union memberTypes="xsd:int xsd:string"/>
+&lt;/simpleType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class int_string_union: public simple_type,
+ public std::basic_string&lt;C>
+{
+public:
+ int_string_union (const C*);
+ int_string_union (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;);
+ int_string_union (const int_string_union&amp;);
+
+public:
+ int_string_union&amp;
+ operator= (const int_string_union&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual int_string_union*
+ _clone () const;
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <h2><a name="2.7">2.7 Mapping for Complex Types</a></h2>
+
+ <p>An XML Schema complex type is mapped to a C++ class with the same
+ name as the complex type. The class defines a public copy constructor,
+ a public copy assignment operator, and a public virtual
+ <code>_clone</code> function. The <code>_clone</code> function is
+ declared <code>const</code>, does not take any arguments, and returns
+ a pointer to a complete copy of the instance allocated in the free
+ store. The <code>_clone</code> function shall be used to make copies
+ when static type and dynamic type of the instance may differ (see
+ <a href="#2.11">Section 2.11, "Mapping for <code>xsi:type</code>
+ and Substitution Groups"</a>).</p>
+
+ <p>Additionally, the resulting C++ class
+ defines two public constructors that take an initializer for each
+ member of the complex type and all its base types that belongs to
+ the One cardinality class (see <a href="#2.8">Section 2.8, "Mapping
+ for Local Elements and Attributes"</a>). In the first constructor,
+ the arguments are passed as constant references and the newly created
+ instance is initialized with copies of the passed objects. In the
+ second constructor, arguments that are complex types (that is,
+ they themselves contain elements or attributes) are passed as
+ references to <code>std::auto_ptr</code>. In this case the newly
+ created instance is directly initialized with and assumes ownership
+ of the pointed to objects and the <code>std::auto_ptr</code> arguments
+ are reset to <code>0</code>. For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="complex">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="a" type="int"/>
+ &lt;element name="b" type="string"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="s-one" type="boolean"/>
+ &lt;element name="c-one" type="complex"/>
+ &lt;element name="optional" type="int" minOccurs="0"/>
+ &lt;element name="sequence" type="string" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class complex: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ object (const int&amp; a, const xml_schema::string&amp; b);
+ object (const complex&amp;);
+
+public:
+ object&amp;
+ operator= (const complex&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual complex*
+ _clone () const;
+
+ ...
+
+};
+
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ object (const bool&amp; s_one, const complex&amp; c_one);
+ object (const bool&amp; s_one, std::auto_ptr&lt;complex>&amp; c_one);
+ object (const object&amp;);
+
+public:
+ object&amp;
+ operator= (const object&amp;);
+
+public:
+ virtual object*
+ _clone () const;
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>Notice that the generated <code>complex</code> class does not
+ have the second (<code>std::auto_ptr</code>) version of the
+ constructor since all its required members are of simple types.</p>
+
+ <p>If an XML Schema complex type has an ultimate base which is an XML
+ Schema simple type then the resulting C++ class also defines a public
+ constructor that takes an initializer for the base type as well as
+ for each member of the complex type and all its base types that
+ belongs to the One cardinality class. For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;simpleContent>
+ &lt;extension base="date">
+ &lt;attribute name="lang" type="language" use="required"/>
+ &lt;/extension>
+ &lt;/simpleContent>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::string
+{
+public:
+ object (const xml_schema::language&amp; lang);
+
+ object (const xml_schema::date&amp; base,
+ const xml_schema::language&amp; lang);
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>Furthermore, for string-based XML Schema complex types, the resulting C++
+ class also defines two public constructors with the first arguments
+ of type <code>const C*</code> and <code>std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;</code>,
+ respectively, followed by arguments for each member of the complex
+ type and all its base types that belongs to the One cardinality
+ class. For enumeration-based complex types the resulting C++
+ class also defines a public constructor with the first arguments
+ of the underlying enum type followed by arguments for each member
+ of the complex type and all its base types that belongs to the One
+ cardinality class. For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;simpleType name="color">
+ &lt;restriction base="string">
+ &lt;enumeration value="red"/>
+ &lt;enumeration value="green"/>
+ &lt;enumeration value="blue"/>
+ &lt;/restriction>
+&lt;/simpleType>
+
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;simpleContent>
+ &lt;extension base="color">
+ &lt;attribute name="lang" type="language" use="required"/>
+ &lt;/extension>
+ &lt;/simpleContent>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class color: xml_schema::string
+{
+public:
+ enum value
+ {
+ red,
+ green,
+ blue
+ };
+
+public:
+ color (value);
+ color (const C*);
+ color (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;);
+
+ ...
+
+};
+
+class object: color
+{
+public:
+ object (const color&amp; base,
+ const xml_schema::language&amp; lang);
+
+ object (const color::value&amp; base,
+ const xml_schema::language&amp; lang);
+
+ object (const C* base,
+ const xml_schema::language&amp; lang);
+
+ object (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; base,
+ const xml_schema::language&amp; lang);
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>Additional constructors can be requested with the
+ <code>--generate-default-ctor</code> and
+ <code>--generate-from-base-ctor</code> options. See the
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
+ Compiler Command Line Manual</a> for details.</p>
+
+ <p>If an XML Schema complex type is not explicitly derived from any type,
+ the resulting C++ class is derived from <code>xml_schema::type</code>.
+ In cases where an XML Schema complex type is defined using derivation
+ by extension or restriction, the resulting C++ base class specification
+ depends on the type of derivation and is described in the subsequent
+ sections.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The mapping for elements and attributes that are defined in a complex
+ type is described in <a href="#2.8">Section 2.8, "Mapping for Local
+ Elements and Attributes"</a>.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.7.1">2.7.1 Mapping for Derivation by Extension</a></h3>
+
+ <p>XML Schema derivation by extension is mapped to C++ public
+ inheritance. The base type of the extension becomes the base
+ type for the resulting C++ class.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.7.2">2.7.2 Mapping for Derivation by Restriction</a></h3>
+
+ <p>XML Schema derivation by restriction is mapped to C++ public
+ inheritance. The base type of the restriction becomes the base
+ type for the resulting C++ class. XML Schema elements and
+ attributes defined within restriction do not result in any
+ definitions in the resulting C++ class. Instead, corresponding
+ (unrestricted) definitions are inherited from the base class.
+ In the future versions of this mapping, such elements and
+ attributes may result in redefinitions of accessors and
+ modifiers to reflect their restricted semantics.
+ </p>
+
+ <!-- 2.8 Mapping for Local Elements and Attributes -->
+
+ <h2><a name="2.8">2.8 Mapping for Local Elements and Attributes</a></h2>
+
+ <p>XML Schema element and attribute definitions are called local
+ if they appear within a complex type definition, an element group
+ definition, or an attribute group definitions.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Local XML Schema element and attribute definitions have the same
+ C++ mapping. Therefore, in this section, local elements and
+ attributes are collectively called members.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>While there are many different member cardinality combinations
+ (determined by the <code>use</code> attribute for attributes and
+ the <code>minOccurs</code> and <code>maxOccurs</code> attributes
+ for elements), the mapping divides all possible cardinality
+ combinations into three cardinality classes:
+ </p>
+
+ <dl>
+ <dt><i>one</i></dt>
+ <dd>attributes: <code>use == "required"</code></dd>
+ <dd>attributes: <code>use == "optional"</code> and has default or fixed value</dd>
+ <dd>elements: <code>minOccurs == "1"</code> and <code>maxOccurs == "1"</code></dd>
+
+ <dt><i>optional</i></dt>
+ <dd>attributes: <code>use == "optional"</code> and doesn't have default or fixed value</dd>
+ <dd>elements: <code>minOccurs == "0"</code> and <code>maxOccurs == "1"</code></dd>
+
+ <dt><i>sequence</i></dt>
+ <dd>elements: <code>maxOccurs > "1"</code></dd>
+ </dl>
+
+ <p>An optional attribute with a default or fixed value acquires this value
+ if the attribute hasn't been specified in an instance document (see
+ <a href="#A">Appendix A, "Default and Fixed Values"</a>). This
+ mapping places such optional attributes to the One cardinality
+ class.</p>
+
+ <p>A member is mapped to a set of public type definitions
+ (<code>typedef</code>s) and a set of public accessor and modifier
+ functions. Type definitions have names derived from the member's
+ name. The accessor and modifier functions have the same name as the
+ member. For example:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="member" type="string"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ typedef xml_schema::string member_type;
+
+ const member_type&amp;
+ member () const;
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>Names and semantics of type definitions for the member as well
+ as signatures of the accessor and modifier functions depend on
+ the member's cardinality class and are described in the following
+ sub-sections.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.8.1">2.8.1 Mapping for Members with the One Cardinality Class</a></h3>
+
+ <p>For the One cardinality class, the type definitions consist of
+ an alias for the member's type with the name created by appending
+ the <code>_type</code> suffix to the member's name.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The accessor functions come in constant and non-constant versions.
+ The constant accessor function returns a constant reference to the
+ member and can be used for read-only access. The non-constant
+ version returns an unrestricted reference to the member and can
+ be used for read-write access.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The first modifier function expects an argument of type reference to
+ constant of the member's type. It makes a deep copy of its argument.
+ Except for member's types that are mapped to fundamental C++ types,
+ the second modifier function is provided that expects an argument
+ of type automatic pointer to the member's type. It assumes ownership
+ of the pointed to object and resets the passed automatic pointer.
+ For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="member" type="string"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ // Type definitions.
+ //
+ typedef xml_schema::string member_type;
+
+ // Accessors.
+ //
+ const member_type&amp;
+ member () const;
+
+ member_type&amp;
+ member ();
+
+ // Modifiers.
+ //
+ void
+ member (const member_type&amp;);
+
+ void
+ member (std::auto_ptr&lt;member_type>);
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <p>The following code shows how one could use this mapping:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+f (object&amp; o)
+{
+ using xml_schema::string;
+
+ string s (o.member ()); // get
+ object::member_type&amp; sr (o.member ()); // get
+
+ o.member ("hello"); // set, deep copy
+ o.member () = "hello"; // set, deep copy
+
+ std::auto_ptr&lt;string> p (new string ("hello"));
+ o.member (p); // set, assumes ownership
+}
+ </pre>
+
+
+<h3><a name="2.8.2">2.8.2 Mapping for Members with the Optional Cardinality Class</a></h3>
+
+ <p>For the Optional cardinality class, the type definitions consist of
+ an alias for the member's type with the name created by appending
+ the <code>_type</code> suffix to the member's name and an alias for
+ the container type with the name created by appending the
+ <code>_optional</code> suffix to the member's name.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Unlike accessor functions for the One cardinality class, accessor
+ functions for the Optional cardinality class return references to
+ corresponding containers rather than directly to members. The
+ accessor functions come in constant and non-constant versions.
+ The constant accessor function returns a constant reference to
+ the container and can be used for read-only access. The non-constant
+ version returns an unrestricted reference to the container
+ and can be used for read-write access.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The modifier functions are overloaded for the member's
+ type and the container type. The first modifier function
+ expects an argument of type reference to constant of the
+ member's type. It makes a deep copy of its argument.
+ Except for member's types that are mapped to fundamental C++ types,
+ the second modifier function is provided that expects an argument
+ of type automatic pointer to the member's type. It assumes ownership
+ of the pointed to object and resets the passed automatic pointer.
+ The last modifier function expects an argument of type reference
+ to constant of the container type. It makes a deep copy of its
+ argument. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="member" type="string" minOccurs="0"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ // Type definitions.
+ //
+ typedef xml_schema::string member_type;
+ typedef optional&lt;member_type> member_optional;
+
+ // Accessors.
+ //
+ const member_optional&amp;
+ member () const;
+
+ member_optional&amp;
+ member ();
+
+ // Modifiers.
+ //
+ void
+ member (const member_type&amp;);
+
+ void
+ member (std::auto_ptr&lt;member_type>);
+
+ void
+ member (const member_optional&amp;);
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <p>The <code>optional</code> class template is defined in an
+ implementation-specific namespace and has the following
+ interface. The <code>auto_ptr</code>-based constructor
+ and modifier function are only available if the template
+ argument is not a fundamental C++ type.
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+template &lt;typename X>
+class optional
+{
+public:
+ optional ();
+
+ // Makes a deep copy.
+ //
+ explicit
+ optional (const X&amp;);
+
+ // Assumes ownership.
+ //
+ explicit
+ optional (std::auto_ptr&lt;X>);
+
+ optional (const optional&amp;);
+
+public:
+ optional&amp;
+ operator= (const X&amp;);
+
+ optional&amp;
+ operator= (const optional&amp;);
+
+ // Pointer-like interface.
+ //
+public:
+ const X*
+ operator-> () const;
+
+ X*
+ operator-> ();
+
+ const X&amp;
+ operator* () const;
+
+ X&amp;
+ operator* ();
+
+ typedef void (optional::*bool_convertible) ();
+ operator bool_convertible () const;
+
+ // Get/set interface.
+ //
+public:
+ bool
+ present () const;
+
+ const X&amp;
+ get () const;
+
+ X&amp;
+ get ();
+
+ // Makes a deep copy.
+ //
+ void
+ set (const X&amp;);
+
+ // Assumes ownership.
+ //
+ void
+ set (std::auto_ptr&lt;X>);
+
+ void
+ reset ();
+};
+
+template &lt;typename X>
+bool
+operator== (const optional&lt;X>&amp;, const optional&lt;X>&amp;);
+
+template &lt;typename X>
+bool
+operator!= (const optional&lt;X>&amp;, const optional&lt;X>&amp;);
+
+template &lt;typename X>
+bool
+operator&lt; (const optional&lt;X>&amp;, const optional&lt;X>&amp;);
+
+template &lt;typename X>
+bool
+operator> (const optional&lt;X>&amp;, const optional&lt;X>&amp;);
+
+template &lt;typename X>
+bool
+operator&lt;= (const optional&lt;X>&amp;, const optional&lt;X>&amp;);
+
+template &lt;typename X>
+bool
+operator>= (const optional&lt;X>&amp;, const optional&lt;X>&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <p>The following code shows how one could use this mapping:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+f (object&amp; o)
+{
+ using xml_schema::string;
+
+ if (o.member ().present ()) // test
+ {
+ string&amp; s (o.member ().get ()); // get
+ o.member ("hello"); // set, deep copy
+ o.member ().set ("hello"); // set, deep copy
+ o.member ().reset (); // reset
+ }
+
+ // Same as above but using pointer notation:
+ //
+ if (o.member ()) // test
+ {
+ string&amp; s (*o.member ()); // get
+ o.member ("hello"); // set, deep copy
+ *o.member () = "hello"; // set, deep copy
+ o.member ().reset (); // reset
+ }
+
+ std::auto_ptr&lt;string> p (new string ("hello"));
+ o.member (p); // set, assumes ownership
+
+ p = new string ("hello");
+ o.member ().set (p); // set, assumes ownership
+}
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.8.3">2.8.3 Mapping for Members with the Sequence Cardinality Class</a></h3>
+
+ <p>For the Sequence cardinality class, the type definitions consist of an
+ alias for the member's type with the name created by appending
+ the <code>_type</code> suffix to the member's name, an alias of
+ the container type with the name created by appending the
+ <code>_sequence</code> suffix to the member's name, an alias of
+ the iterator type with the name created by appending the
+ <code>_iterator</code> suffix to the member's name, and an alias
+ of the constant iterator type with the name created by appending the
+ <code>_const_iterator</code> suffix to the member's name.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The accessor functions come in constant and non-constant versions.
+ The constant accessor function returns a constant reference to the
+ container and can be used for read-only access. The non-constant
+ version returns an unrestricted reference to the container and can
+ be used for read-write access.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The modifier function expects an argument of type reference to
+ constant of the container type. The modifier function
+ makes a deep copy of its argument. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="member" type="string" minOccurs="unbounded"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ // Type definitions.
+ //
+ typedef xml_schema::string member_type;
+ typedef sequence&lt;member_type> member_sequence;
+ typedef member_sequence::iterator member_iterator;
+ typedef member_sequence::const_iterator member_const_iterator;
+
+ // Accessors.
+ //
+ const member_sequence&amp;
+ member () const;
+
+ member_sequence&amp;
+ member ();
+
+ // Modifier.
+ //
+ void
+ member (const member_sequence&amp;);
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>sequence</code> class template is defined in an
+ implementation-specific namespace. It conforms to the
+ sequence interface as defined by the ISO/ANSI Standard for
+ C++ (ISO/IEC 14882:1998, Section 23.1.1, "Sequences").
+ Practically, this means that you can treat such a sequence
+ as if it was <code>std::vector</code>. One notable extension
+ to the standard interface that is available only for
+ sequences of non-fundamental C++ types is the addition of
+ the overloaded <code>push_back</code> and <code>insert</code>
+ member functions which instead of the constant reference
+ to the element type accept automatic pointer to the element
+ type. These functions assume ownership of the pointed to
+ object and resets the passed automatic pointer.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The following code shows how one could use this mapping:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+f (object&amp; o)
+{
+ using xml_schema::string;
+
+ object::member_sequence&amp; s (o.member ());
+
+ // Iteration.
+ //
+ for (object::member_iterator i (s.begin ()); i != s.end (); ++i)
+ {
+ string&amp; value (*i);
+ }
+
+ // Modification.
+ //
+ s.push_back ("hello"); // deep copy
+
+ std::auto_ptr&lt;string> p (new string ("hello"));
+ s.push_back (o); // assumes ownership
+
+ // Setting a new container.
+ //
+ object::member_sequence n;
+ n.push_back ("one");
+ n.push_back ("two");
+ o.member (n); // deep copy
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <h2><a name="2.9">2.9 Mapping for Global Elements</a></h2>
+
+ <p>An XML Schema element definition is called global if it appears
+ directly under the <code>schema</code> element.
+ A global element is a valid root of an instance document. By
+ default, a global element is mapped to a set of overloaded
+ parsing and, optionally, serialization functions with the
+ same name as the element. It is also possible to generate types
+ for root elements instead of parsing and serialization functions.
+ This is primarily useful to distinguish object models with the
+ same root type but with different root elements. See
+ <a href="#2.9.1">Section 2.9.1, "Element Types"</a> for details.
+ It is also possible to request the generation of an element map
+ which allows uniform parsing and serialization of multiple root
+ elements. See <a href="#2.9.2">Section 2.9.2, "Element Map"</a>
+ for details.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The parsing functions read XML instance documents and return
+ corresponding object models. Their signatures
+ have the following pattern (<code>type</code> denotes
+ element's type and <code>name</code> denotes element's
+ name):
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (....);
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The process of parsing, including the exact signatures of the parsing
+ functions, is the subject of <a href="#3">Chapter 3, "Parsing"</a>.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The serialization functions write object models
+ back to XML instance documents. Their signatures
+ have the following pattern:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+name (&lt;stream type>&amp;, const type&amp;, ....);
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The process of serialization, including the exact signatures of the
+ serialization functions, is the subject of <a href="#4">Chapter 4,
+ "Serialization"</a>.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.9.1">2.9.1 Element Types</a></h3>
+
+ <p>The generation of element types is requested with the
+ <code>--generate-element-map</code> option. With this option
+ each global element is mapped to a C++ class with the
+ same name as the element. Such a class is derived from
+ <code>xml_schema::element_type</code> and contains the same set
+ of type definitions, constructors, and member function as would a
+ type containing a single element with the One cardinality class
+ named <code>"value"</code>. In addition, the element type also
+ contains a set of member functions for accessing the element
+ name and namespace as well as its value in a uniform manner.
+ For example:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="type">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ ...
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+
+&lt;element name="root" type="type"/>
+ </pre>
+
+<p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class type
+{
+ ...
+};
+
+class root: public xml_schema::element_type
+{
+public:
+ // Element value.
+ //
+ typedef type value_type;
+
+ const value_type&amp;
+ value () const;
+
+ value_type&amp;
+ value ();
+
+ void
+ value (const value_type&amp;);
+
+ void
+ value (std::auto_ptr&lt;value_type>);
+
+ // Constructors.
+ //
+ root (const value_type&amp;);
+
+ root (std::auto_ptr&lt;value_type>);
+
+ root (const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;, xml_schema::flags = 0);
+
+ root (const root&amp;, xml_schema::flags = 0);
+
+ virtual root*
+ _clone (xml_schema::flags = 0) const;
+
+ // Element name and namespace.
+ //
+ static const std::string&amp;
+ name ();
+
+ static const std::string&amp;
+ namespace_ ();
+
+ virtual const std::string&amp;
+ _name () const;
+
+ virtual const std::string&amp;
+ _namespace () const;
+
+ // Element value as xml_schema::type.
+ //
+ virtual const xml_schema::type*
+ _value () const;
+
+ virtual xml_schema::type*
+ _value ();
+};
+
+void
+operator&lt;&lt; (xercesc::DOMElement&amp;, const root&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::element_type</code> class is a common
+ base type for all element types and is defined as follows:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+namespace xml_schema
+{
+ class element_type
+ {
+ public:
+ virtual
+ ~element_type ();
+
+ virtual element_type*
+ _clone (flags f = 0) const = 0;
+
+ virtual const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ _name () const = 0;
+
+ virtual const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ _namespace () const = 0;
+
+ virtual xml_schema::type*
+ _value () = 0;
+
+ virtual const xml_schema::type*
+ _value () const = 0;
+ };
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>_value()</code> member function returns a pointer to
+ the element value or 0 if the element is of a fundamental C++
+ type and therefore is not derived from <code>xml_schema::type</code>.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Unlike parsing and serialization functions, element types
+ are only capable of parsing and serializing from/to a
+ <code>DOMElement</code> object. This means that the application
+ will need to perform its own XML-to-DOM parsing and DOM-to-XML
+ serialization. The following section describes a mechanism
+ provided by the mapping to uniformly parse and serialize
+ multiple root elements.</p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.9.2">2.9.2 Element Map</a></h3>
+
+ <p>When element types are generated for root elements it is also
+ possible to request the generation of an element map with the
+ <code>--generate-element-map</code> option. The element map
+ allows uniform parsing and serialization of multiple root
+ elements via the common <code>xml_schema::element_type</code>
+ base type. The <code>xml_schema::element_map</code> class is
+ defined as follows:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+namespace xml_schema
+{
+ class element_map
+ {
+ public:
+ static std::auto_ptr&lt;xml_schema::element_type>
+ parse (const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;, flags = 0);
+
+ static void
+ serialize (xercesc::DOMElement&amp;, const element_type&amp;);
+ };
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>parse()</code> function creates the corresponding
+ element type object based on the element name and namespace
+ and returns it as a pointer to <code>xml_schema::element_type</code>.
+ The <code>serialize()</code> function serializes the passed element
+ object to <code>DOMElement</code>. Note that in case of
+ <code>serialize()</code>, the <code>DOMElement</code> object
+ should have the correct name and namespace. If no element type is
+ available for an element, both functions throw the
+ <code>xml_schema::no_element_info</code> exception:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct no_element_info: virtual exception
+{
+ no_element_info (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; element_name,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; element_namespace);
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ element_name () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ element_namespace () const;
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The application can discover the actual type of the element
+ object returned by <code>parse()</code> either using
+ <code>dynamic_cast</code> or by comparing element names and
+ namespaces. The following code fragments illustrate how the
+ element map can be used:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+// Parsing.
+//
+DOMElement&amp; e = ... // Parse XML to DOM.
+
+auto_ptr&lt;xml_schema::element_type> r (
+ xml_schema::element_map::parse (e));
+
+if (root1 r1 = dynamic_cast&lt;root1*> (r.get ()))
+{
+ ...
+}
+else if (r->_name == root2::name () &amp;&amp;
+ r->_namespace () == root2::namespace_ ())
+{
+ root2&amp; r2 (static_cast&lt;root2&amp;> (*r));
+
+ ...
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+// Serialization.
+//
+xml_schema::element_type&amp; r = ...
+
+string name (r._name ());
+string ns (r._namespace ());
+
+DOMDocument&amp; doc = ... // Create a new DOMDocument with name and ns.
+DOMElement&amp; e (*doc->getDocumentElement ());
+
+xml_schema::element_map::serialize (e, r);
+
+// Serialize DOMDocument to XML.
+ </pre>
+
+ <!-- -->
+
+ <h2><a name="2.10">2.10 Mapping for Global Attributes</a></h2>
+
+ <p>An XML Schema attribute definition is called global if it appears
+ directly under the <code>schema</code> element. A global
+ attribute does not have any mapping.
+ </p>
+
+ <!--
+ When it is referenced from
+ a local attribute definition (using the <code>ref</code> attribute)
+ it is treated as a local attribute (see Section 2.8, "Mapping for
+ Local Elements and Attributes").
+ -->
+
+ <h2><a name="2.11">2.11 Mapping for <code>xsi:type</code> and Substitution
+ Groups</a></h2>
+
+ <p>The mapping provides optional support for the XML Schema polymorphism
+ features (<code>xsi:type</code> and substitution groups) which can
+ be requested with the <code>--generate-polymorphic</code> option.
+ When used, the dynamic type of a member may be different from
+ its static type. Consider the following schema definition and
+ instance document:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;!-- test.xsd -->
+&lt;schema>
+ &lt;complexType name="base">
+ &lt;attribute name="text" type="string"/>
+ &lt;/complexType>
+
+ &lt;complexType name="derived">
+ &lt;complexContent>
+ &lt;extension base="base">
+ &lt;attribute name="extra-text" type="string"/>
+ &lt;/extension>
+ &lt;/complexContent>
+ &lt;/complexType>
+
+ &lt;complexType name="root_type">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="item" type="base" maxOccurs="unbounded"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+ &lt;/complexType>
+
+ &lt;element name="root" type="root_type"/>
+&lt;/schema>
+
+&lt;!-- test.xml -->
+&lt;root xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance">
+ &lt;item text="hello"/>
+ &lt;item text="hello" extra-text="world" xsi:type="derived"/>
+&lt;/root>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>In the resulting object model, the container for
+ the <code>root::item</code> member will have two elements:
+ the first element's type will be <code>base</code> while
+ the second element's (dynamic) type will be
+ <code>derived</code>. This can be discovered using the
+ <code>dynamic_cast</code> operator as shown in the following
+ example:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+f (root&amp; r)
+{
+ for (root::item_const_iterator i (r.item ().begin ());
+ i != r.item ().end ()
+ ++i)
+ {
+ if (derived* d = dynamic_cast&lt;derived*> (&amp;(*i)))
+ {
+ // derived
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ // base
+ }
+ }
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>_clone</code> virtual function should be used instead of
+ copy constructors to make copies of members that might use
+ polymorphism:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+f (root&amp; r)
+{
+ for (root::item_const_iterator i (r.item ().begin ());
+ i != r.item ().end ()
+ ++i)
+ {
+ std::auto_ptr&lt;base> c (i->_clone ());
+ }
+}
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <!-- Mapping for any and anyAttribute -->
+
+
+ <h2><a name="2.12">2.12 Mapping for <code>any</code> and <code>anyAttribute</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>For the XML Schema <code>any</code> and <code>anyAttribute</code>
+ wildcards an optional mapping can be requested with the
+ <code>--generate-wildcard</code> option. The mapping represents
+ the content matched by wildcards as DOM fragments. Because the
+ DOM API is used to access such content, the Xerces-C++ runtime
+ should be initialized by the application prior to parsing and
+ should remain initialized for the lifetime of objects with
+ the wildcard content. For more information on the Xerces-C++
+ runtime initialization see <a href="#3.1">Section 3.1,
+ "Initializing the Xerces-C++ Runtime"</a>.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The mapping for <code>any</code> is similar to the mapping for
+ local elements (see <a href="#2.8">Section 2.8, "Mapping for Local
+ Elements and Attributes"</a>) except that the type used in the
+ wildcard mapping is <code>xercesc::DOMElement</code>. As with local
+ elements, the mapping divides all possible cardinality combinations
+ into three cardinality classes: <i>one</i>, <i>optional</i>, and
+ <i>sequence</i>.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The mapping for <code>anyAttribute</code> represents the attributes
+ matched by this wildcard as a set of <code>xercesc::DOMAttr</code>
+ objects with a key being the attribute's name and namespace.</p>
+
+ <p>Similar to local elements and attributes, the <code>any</code> and
+ <code>anyAttribute</code> wildcards are mapped to a set of public type
+ definitions (typedefs) and a set of public accessor and modifier
+ functions. Type definitions have names derived from <code>"any"</code>
+ for the <code>any</code> wildcard and <code>"any_attribute"</code>
+ for the <code>anyAttribute</code> wildcard. The accessor and modifier
+ functions are named <code>"any"</code> for the <code>any</code> wildcard
+ and <code>"any_attribute"</code> for the <code>anyAttribute</code>
+ wildcard. Subsequent wildcards in the same type have escaped names
+ such as <code>"any1"</code> or <code>"any_attribute1"</code>.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Because Xerces-C++ DOM nodes always belong to a <code>DOMDocument</code>,
+ each type with a wildcard has an associated <code>DOMDocument</code>
+ object. The reference to this object can be obtained using the accessor
+ function called <code>dom_document</code>. The access to the document
+ object from the application code may be necessary to create or modify
+ the wildcard content. For example:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;any namespace="##other"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+ &lt;anyAttribute namespace="##other"/>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ // any
+ //
+ const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ any () const;
+
+ void
+ any (const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+ ...
+
+ // any_attribute
+ //
+ typedef attribute_set any_attribute_set;
+ typedef any_attribute_set::iterator any_attribute_iterator;
+ typedef any_attribute_set::const_iterator any_attribute_const_iterator;
+
+ const any_attribute_set&amp;
+ any_attribute () const;
+
+ any_attribute_set&amp;
+ any_attribute ();
+
+ ...
+
+ // DOMDocument object for wildcard content.
+ //
+ const xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;
+ dom_document () const;
+
+ xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;
+ dom_document ();
+
+ ...
+};
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <p>Names and semantics of type definitions for the wildcards as well
+ as signatures of the accessor and modifier functions depend on the
+ wildcard type as well as the cardinality class for the <code>any</code>
+ wildcard. They are described in the following sub-sections.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.12.1">2.12.1 Mapping for <code>any</code> with the One Cardinality Class</a></h3>
+
+ <p>For <code>any</code> with the One cardinality class,
+ there are no type definitions. The accessor functions come in
+ constant and non-constant versions. The constant accessor function
+ returns a constant reference to <code>xercesc::DOMElement</code> and
+ can be used for read-only access. The non-constant version returns
+ an unrestricted reference to <code>xercesc::DOMElement</code> and can
+ be used for read-write access.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The first modifier function expects an argument of type reference
+ to constant <code>xercesc::DOMElement</code> and makes a deep copy
+ of its argument. The second modifier function expects an argument of
+ type pointer to <code>xercesc::DOMElement</code>. This modifier
+ function assumes ownership of its argument and expects the element
+ object to be created using the DOM document associated with this
+ instance. For example:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;any namespace="##other"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ // Accessors.
+ //
+ const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ any () const;
+
+ xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ any ();
+
+ // Modifiers.
+ //
+ void
+ any (const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+ void
+ any (xercesc::DOMElement*);
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <p>The following code shows how one could use this mapping:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+f (object&amp; o, const xercesc::DOMElement&amp; e)
+{
+ using namespace xercesc;
+
+ DOMElement&amp; e1 (o.any ()); // get
+ o.any (e) // set, deep copy
+ DOMDocument&amp; doc (o.dom_document ());
+ o.any (doc.createElement (...)); // set, assumes ownership
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <h3><a name="2.12.2">2.12.2 Mapping for <code>any</code> with the Optional Cardinality Class</a></h3>
+
+ <p>For <code>any</code> with the Optional cardinality class, the type
+ definitions consist of an alias for the container type with name
+ <code>any_optional</code> (or <code>any1_optional</code>, etc., for
+ subsequent wildcards in the type definition).
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Unlike accessor functions for the One cardinality class, accessor
+ functions for the Optional cardinality class return references to
+ corresponding containers rather than directly to <code>DOMElement</code>.
+ The accessor functions come in constant and non-constant versions.
+ The constant accessor function returns a constant reference to
+ the container and can be used for read-only access. The non-constant
+ version returns an unrestricted reference to the container
+ and can be used for read-write access.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The modifier functions are overloaded for <code>xercesc::DOMElement</code>
+ and the container type. The first modifier function expects an argument of
+ type reference to constant <code>xercesc::DOMElement</code> and
+ makes a deep copy of its argument. The second modifier function
+ expects an argument of type pointer to <code>xercesc::DOMElement</code>.
+ This modifier function assumes ownership of its argument and expects
+ the element object to be created using the DOM document associated
+ with this instance. The third modifier function expects an argument
+ of type reference to constant of the container type and makes a
+ deep copy of its argument. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;any namespace="##other" minOccurs="0"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ // Type definitions.
+ //
+ typedef element_optional any_optional;
+
+ // Accessors.
+ //
+ const any_optional&amp;
+ any () const;
+
+ any_optional&amp;
+ any ();
+
+ // Modifiers.
+ //
+ void
+ any (const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+ void
+ any (xercesc::DOMElement*);
+
+ void
+ any (const any_optional&amp;);
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <p>The <code>element_optional</code> container is a
+ specialization of the <code>optional</code> class template described
+ in <a href="#2.8.2">Section 2.8.2, "Mapping for Members with the Optional
+ Cardinality Class"</a>. Its interface is presented below:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class element_optional
+{
+public:
+ explicit
+ element_optional (xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ // Makes a deep copy.
+ //
+ element_optional (const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;, xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ // Assumes ownership.
+ //
+ element_optional (xercesc::DOMElement*, xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ element_optional (const element_optional&amp;, xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+public:
+ element_optional&amp;
+ operator= (const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+ element_optional&amp;
+ operator= (const element_optional&amp;);
+
+ // Pointer-like interface.
+ //
+public:
+ const xercesc::DOMElement*
+ operator-> () const;
+
+ xercesc::DOMElement*
+ operator-> ();
+
+ const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ operator* () const;
+
+ xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ operator* ();
+
+ typedef void (element_optional::*bool_convertible) ();
+ operator bool_convertible () const;
+
+ // Get/set interface.
+ //
+public:
+ bool
+ present () const;
+
+ const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ get () const;
+
+ xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ get ();
+
+ // Makes a deep copy.
+ //
+ void
+ set (const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+ // Assumes ownership.
+ //
+ void
+ set (xercesc::DOMElement*);
+
+ void
+ reset ();
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const element_optional&amp;, const element_optional&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const element_optional&amp;, const element_optional&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <p>The following code shows how one could use this mapping:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+f (object&amp; o, const xercesc::DOMElement&amp; e)
+{
+ using namespace xercesc;
+
+ DOMDocument&amp; doc (o.dom_document ());
+
+ if (o.any ().present ()) // test
+ {
+ DOMElement&amp; e1 (o.any ().get ()); // get
+ o.any ().set (e); // set, deep copy
+ o.any ().set (doc.createElement (...)); // set, assumes ownership
+ o.any ().reset (); // reset
+ }
+
+ // Same as above but using pointer notation:
+ //
+ if (o.member ()) // test
+ {
+ DOMElement&amp; e1 (*o.any ()); // get
+ o.any (e); // set, deep copy
+ o.any (doc.createElement (...)); // set, assumes ownership
+ o.any ().reset (); // reset
+ }
+}
+ </pre>
+
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.12.3">2.12.3 Mapping for <code>any</code> with the Sequence Cardinality Class</a></h3>
+
+ <p>For <code>any</code> with the Sequence cardinality class, the type
+ definitions consist of an alias of the container type with name
+ <code>any_sequence</code> (or <code>any1_sequence</code>, etc., for
+ subsequent wildcards in the type definition), an alias of the iterator
+ type with name <code>any_iterator</code> (or <code>any1_iterator</code>,
+ etc., for subsequent wildcards in the type definition), and an alias
+ of the constant iterator type with name <code>any_const_iterator</code>
+ (or <code>any1_const_iterator</code>, etc., for subsequent wildcards
+ in the type definition).
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The accessor functions come in constant and non-constant versions.
+ The constant accessor function returns a constant reference to the
+ container and can be used for read-only access. The non-constant
+ version returns an unrestricted reference to the container and can
+ be used for read-write access.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The modifier function expects an argument of type reference to
+ constant of the container type. The modifier function makes
+ a deep copy of its argument. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;any namespace="##other" minOccurs="unbounded"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ // Type definitions.
+ //
+ typedef element_sequence any_sequence;
+ typedef any_sequence::iterator any_iterator;
+ typedef any_sequence::const_iterator any_const_iterator;
+
+ // Accessors.
+ //
+ const any_sequence&amp;
+ any () const;
+
+ any_sequence&amp;
+ any ();
+
+ // Modifier.
+ //
+ void
+ any (const any_sequence&amp;);
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>element_sequence</code> container is a
+ specialization of the <code>sequence</code> class template described
+ in <a href="#2.8.3">Section 2.8.3, "Mapping for Members with the
+ Sequence Cardinality Class"</a>. Its interface is similar to
+ the sequence interface as defined by the ISO/ANSI Standard for
+ C++ (ISO/IEC 14882:1998, Section 23.1.1, "Sequences") and is
+ presented below:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class element_sequence
+{
+public:
+ typedef xercesc::DOMElement value_type;
+ typedef xercesc::DOMElement* pointer;
+ typedef const xercesc::DOMElement* const_pointer;
+ typedef xercesc::DOMElement&amp; reference;
+ typedef const xercesc::DOMElement&amp; const_reference;
+
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> iterator;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> const_iterator;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> reverse_iterator;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> const_reverse_iterator;
+
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> size_type;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> difference_type;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> allocator_type;
+
+public:
+ explicit
+ element_sequence (xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ // DOMElement cannot be default-constructed.
+ //
+ // explicit
+ // element_sequence (size_type n);
+
+ element_sequence (size_type n,
+ const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;,
+ xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ template &lt;typename I>
+ element_sequence (const I&amp; begin,
+ const I&amp; end,
+ xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ element_sequence (const element_sequence&amp;, xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ element_sequence&amp;
+ operator= (const element_sequence&amp;);
+
+public:
+ void
+ assign (size_type n, const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+ template &lt;typename I>
+ void
+ assign (const I&amp; begin, const I&amp; end);
+
+public:
+ // This version of resize can only be used to shrink the
+ // sequence because DOMElement cannot be default-constructed.
+ //
+ void
+ resize (size_type);
+
+ void
+ resize (size_type, const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+public:
+ size_type
+ size () const;
+
+ size_type
+ max_size () const;
+
+ size_type
+ capacity () const;
+
+ bool
+ empty () const;
+
+ void
+ reserve (size_type);
+
+ void
+ clear ();
+
+public:
+ const_iterator
+ begin () const;
+
+ const_iterator
+ end () const;
+
+ iterator
+ begin ();
+
+ iterator
+ end ();
+
+ const_reverse_iterator
+ rbegin () const;
+
+ const_reverse_iterator
+ rend () const
+
+ reverse_iterator
+ rbegin ();
+
+ reverse_iterator
+ rend ();
+
+public:
+ xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ operator[] (size_type);
+
+ const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ operator[] (size_type) const;
+
+ xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ at (size_type);
+
+ const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ at (size_type) const;
+
+ xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ front ();
+
+ const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ front () const;
+
+ xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ back ();
+
+ const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;
+ back () const;
+
+public:
+ // Makes a deep copy.
+ //
+ void
+ push_back (const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+ // Assumes ownership.
+ //
+ void
+ push_back (xercesc::DOMElement*);
+
+ void
+ pop_back ();
+
+ // Makes a deep copy.
+ //
+ iterator
+ insert (iterator position, const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+ // Assumes ownership.
+ //
+ iterator
+ insert (iterator position, xercesc::DOMElement*);
+
+ void
+ insert (iterator position, size_type n, const xercesc::DOMElement&amp;);
+
+ template &lt;typename I>
+ void
+ insert (iterator position, const I&amp; begin, const I&amp; end);
+
+ iterator
+ erase (iterator position);
+
+ iterator
+ erase (iterator begin, iterator end);
+
+public:
+ // Note that the DOMDocument object of the two sequences being
+ // swapped should be the same.
+ //
+ void
+ swap (sequence&amp; x);
+};
+
+inline bool
+operator== (const element_sequence&amp;, const element_sequence&amp;);
+
+inline bool
+operator!= (const element_sequence&amp;, const element_sequence&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <p>The following code shows how one could use this mapping:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+f (object&amp; o, const xercesc::DOMElement&amp; e)
+{
+ using namespace xercesc;
+
+ object::any_sequence&amp; s (o.any ());
+
+ // Iteration.
+ //
+ for (object::any_iterator i (s.begin ()); i != s.end (); ++i)
+ {
+ DOMElement&amp; e (*i);
+ }
+
+ // Modification.
+ //
+ s.push_back (e); // deep copy
+ DOMDocument&amp; doc (o.dom_document ());
+ s.push_back (doc.createElement (...)); // assumes ownership
+}
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="2.12.4">2.12.4 Mapping for <code>anyAttribute</code></a></h3>
+
+ <p>For <code>anyAttribute</code> the type definitions consist of an alias
+ of the container type with name <code>any_attribute_set</code>
+ (or <code>any1_attribute_set</code>, etc., for subsequent wildcards
+ in the type definition), an alias of the iterator type with name
+ <code>any_attribute_iterator</code> (or <code>any1_attribute_iterator</code>,
+ etc., for subsequent wildcards in the type definition), and an alias
+ of the constant iterator type with name <code>any_attribute_const_iterator</code>
+ (or <code>any1_attribute_const_iterator</code>, etc., for subsequent
+ wildcards in the type definition).
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The accessor functions come in constant and non-constant versions.
+ The constant accessor function returns a constant reference to the
+ container and can be used for read-only access. The non-constant
+ version returns an unrestricted reference to the container and can
+ be used for read-write access.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The modifier function expects an argument of type reference to
+ constant of the container type. The modifier function makes
+ a deep copy of its argument. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ ...
+ &lt;/sequence>
+ &lt;anyAttribute namespace="##other"/>
+&lt;/complexType>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class object: xml_schema::type
+{
+public:
+ // Type definitions.
+ //
+ typedef attribute_set any_attribute_set;
+ typedef any_attribute_set::iterator any_attribute_iterator;
+ typedef any_attribute_set::const_iterator any_attribute_const_iterator;
+
+ // Accessors.
+ //
+ const any_attribute_set&amp;
+ any_attribute () const;
+
+ any_attribute_set&amp;
+ any_attribute ();
+
+ // Modifier.
+ //
+ void
+ any_attribute (const any_attribute_set&amp;);
+
+ ...
+
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>attribute_set</code> class is an associative container
+ similar to the <code>std::set</code> class template as defined by
+ the ISO/ANSI Standard for C++ (ISO/IEC 14882:1998, Section 23.3.3,
+ "Class template set") with the key being the attribute's name
+ and namespace. Unlike <code>std::set</code>, <code>attribute_set</code>
+ allows searching using names and namespaces instead of
+ <code>xercesc::DOMAttr</code> objects. It is defined in an
+ implementation-specific namespace and its interface is presented
+ below:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class attribute_set
+{
+public:
+ typedef xercesc::DOMAttr key_type;
+ typedef xercesc::DOMAttr value_type;
+ typedef xercesc::DOMAttr* pointer;
+ typedef const xercesc::DOMAttr* const_pointer;
+ typedef xercesc::DOMAttr&amp; reference;
+ typedef const xercesc::DOMAttr&amp; const_reference;
+
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> iterator;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> const_iterator;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> reverse_iterator;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> const_reverse_iterator;
+
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> size_type;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> difference_type;
+ typedef &lt;implementation-defined> allocator_type;
+
+public:
+ attribute_set (xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ template &lt;typename I>
+ attribute_set (const I&amp; begin, const I&amp; end, xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ attribute_set (const attribute_set&amp;, xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;);
+
+ attribute_set&amp;
+ operator= (const attribute_set&amp;);
+
+public:
+ const_iterator
+ begin () const;
+
+ const_iterator
+ end () const;
+
+ iterator
+ begin ();
+
+ iterator
+ end ();
+
+ const_reverse_iterator
+ rbegin () const;
+
+ const_reverse_iterator
+ rend () const;
+
+ reverse_iterator
+ rbegin ();
+
+ reverse_iterator
+ rend ();
+
+public:
+ size_type
+ size () const;
+
+ size_type
+ max_size () const;
+
+ bool
+ empty () const;
+
+ void
+ clear ();
+
+public:
+ // Makes a deep copy.
+ //
+ std::pair&lt;iterator, bool>
+ insert (const xercesc::DOMAttr&amp;);
+
+ // Assumes ownership.
+ //
+ std::pair&lt;iterator, bool>
+ insert (xercesc::DOMAttr*);
+
+ // Makes a deep copy.
+ //
+ iterator
+ insert (iterator position, const xercesc::DOMAttr&amp;);
+
+ // Assumes ownership.
+ //
+ iterator
+ insert (iterator position, xercesc::DOMAttr*);
+
+ template &lt;typename I>
+ void
+ insert (const I&amp; begin, const I&amp; end);
+
+public:
+ void
+ erase (iterator position);
+
+ size_type
+ erase (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name);
+
+ size_type
+ erase (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; namespace_,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name);
+
+ size_type
+ erase (const XMLCh* name);
+
+ size_type
+ erase (const XMLCh* namespace_, const XMLCh* name);
+
+ void
+ erase (iterator begin, iterator end);
+
+public:
+ size_type
+ count (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name) const;
+
+ size_type
+ count (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; namespace_,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name) const;
+
+ size_type
+ count (const XMLCh* name) const;
+
+ size_type
+ count (const XMLCh* namespace_, const XMLCh* name) const;
+
+ iterator
+ find (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name);
+
+ iterator
+ find (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; namespace_,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name);
+
+ iterator
+ find (const XMLCh* name);
+
+ iterator
+ find (const XMLCh* namespace_, const XMLCh* name);
+
+ const_iterator
+ find (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name) const;
+
+ const_iterator
+ find (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; namespace_,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name) const;
+
+ const_iterator
+ find (const XMLCh* name) const;
+
+ const_iterator
+ find (const XMLCh* namespace_, const XMLCh* name) const;
+
+public:
+ // Note that the DOMDocument object of the two sets being
+ // swapped should be the same.
+ //
+ void
+ swap (attribute_set&amp;);
+};
+
+bool
+operator== (const attribute_set&amp;, const attribute_set&amp;);
+
+bool
+operator!= (const attribute_set&amp;, const attribute_set&amp;);
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The following code shows how one could use this mapping:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+void
+f (object&amp; o, const xercesc::DOMAttr&amp; a)
+{
+ using namespace xercesc;
+
+ object::any_attribute_set&amp; s (o.any_attribute ());
+
+ // Iteration.
+ //
+ for (object::any_attribute_iterator i (s.begin ()); i != s.end (); ++i)
+ {
+ DOMAttr&amp; a (*i);
+ }
+
+ // Modification.
+ //
+ s.insert (a); // deep copy
+ DOMDocument&amp; doc (o.dom_document ());
+ s.insert (doc.createAttribute (...)); // assumes ownership
+
+ // Searching.
+ //
+ object::any_attribute_iterator i (s.find ("name"));
+ i = s.find ("http://www.w3.org/XML/1998/namespace", "lang");
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <!-- Mapping for Mixed Content Models -->
+
+ <h2><a name="2.13">2.13 Mapping for Mixed Content Models</a></h2>
+
+ <p>XML Schema mixed content models do not have a direct C++ mapping.
+ Instead, information in XML instance documents, corresponding to
+ a mixed content model, can be accessed using generic DOM nodes that
+ can optionally be associated with object model nodes. See
+ <a href="#5.1">Section 5.1, "DOM Association"</a> for more
+ information about keeping association with DOM nodes.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <!-- Parsing -->
+
+
+ <h1><a name="3">3 Parsing</a></h1>
+
+ <p>This chapter covers various aspects of parsing XML instance
+ documents in order to obtain corresponding tree-like object
+ model.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Each global XML Schema element in the form:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;element name="name" type="type"/>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to 14 overloaded C++ functions in the form:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+// Read from a URI or a local file.
+//
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; uri,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; uri,
+ xml_schema::error_handler&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; uri,
+ xercesc::DOMErrorHandler&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+
+// Read from std::istream.
+//
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (std::istream&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (std::istream&amp;,
+ xml_schema::error_handler&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (std::istream&amp;,
+ xercesc::DOMErrorHandler&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (std::istream&amp;,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; id,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (std::istream&amp;,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; id,
+ xml_schema::error_handler&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (std::istream&amp;,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; id,
+ xercesc::DOMErrorHandler&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+
+// Read from InputSource.
+//
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (xercesc::InputSource&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (xercesc::InputSource&amp;,
+ xml_schema::error_handler&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (xercesc::InputSource&amp;,
+ xercesc::DOMErrorHandler&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+
+// Read from DOM.
+//
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (const xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type>
+name (xml_schema::dom::auto_ptr&lt;xercesc::DOMDocument>&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0,
+ const xml_schema::properties&amp; = xml_schema::properties ());
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>You can choose between reading an XML instance from a local file,
+ URI, <code>std::istream</code>, <code>xercesc::InputSource</code>,
+ or a pre-parsed DOM instance in the form of
+ <code>xercesc::DOMDocument</code>. Each of these parsing functions
+ is discussed in more detail in the following sections.
+ </p>
+
+ <h2><a name="3.1">3.1 Initializing the Xerces-C++ Runtime</a></h2>
+
+ <p>Some parsing functions expect you to initialize the Xerces-C++
+ runtime while others initialize and terminate it as part of their
+ work. The general rule is as follows: if a function has any arguments
+ or return a value that is an instance of a Xerces-C++ type, then
+ this function expects you to initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime.
+ Otherwise, the function initializes and terminates the runtime for
+ you. Note that it is legal to have nested calls to the Xerces-C++
+ initialize and terminate functions as long as the calls are balanced.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>You can instruct parsing functions that initialize and terminate
+ the runtime not to do so by passing the
+ <code>xml_schema::flags::dont_initialize</code> flag (see
+ <a href="#3.2">Section 3.2, "Flags and Properties"</a>).
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="3.2">3.2 Flags and Properties</a></h2>
+
+ <p>Parsing flags and properties are the last two arguments of every
+ parsing function. They allow you to fine-tune the process of
+ instance validation and parsing. Both arguments are optional.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <p>The following flags are recognized by the parsing functions:</p>
+
+ <dl>
+ <dt><code>xml_schema::flags::keep_dom</code></dt>
+ <dd>Keep association between DOM nodes and the resulting
+ object model nodes. For more information about DOM association
+ refer to <a href="#5.1">Section 5.1, "DOM Association"</a>.</dd>
+
+ <dt><code>xml_schema::flags::own_dom</code></dt>
+ <dd>Assume ownership of the DOM document passed. This flag only
+ makes sense together with the <code>keep_dom</code> flag in
+ the call to the parsing function with the
+ <code>xml_schema::dom::auto_ptr&lt;DOMDocument></code>
+ argument.</dd>
+
+ <dt><code>xml_schema::flags::dont_validate</code></dt>
+ <dd>Do not validate instance documents against schemas.</dd>
+
+ <dt><code>xml_schema::flags::dont_initialize</code></dt>
+ <dd>Do not initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime.</dd>
+ </dl>
+
+ <p>You can pass several flags by combining them using the bit-wise OR
+ operator. For example:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+using xml_schema::flags;
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type> r (
+ name ("test.xml", flags::keep_dom | flags::dont_validate));
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>By default, validation of instance documents is turned on even
+ though parsers generated by XSD do not assume instance
+ documents are valid. They include a number of checks that prevent
+ construction of inconsistent object models. This,
+ however, does not mean that an instance document that was
+ successfully parsed by the XSD-generated parsers is
+ valid per the corresponding schema. If an instance document is not
+ "valid enough" for the generated parsers to construct consistent
+ object model, one of the exceptions defined in
+ <code>xml_schema</code> namespace is thrown (see
+ <a href="#3.3">Section 3.3, "Error Handling"</a>).
+ </p>
+
+ <p>For more information on the Xerces-C++ runtime initialization
+ refer to <a href="#3.1">Section 3.1, "Initializing the Xerces-C++
+ Runtime"</a>.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::properties</code> class allows you to
+ programmatically specify schema locations to be used instead
+ of those specified with the <code>xsi::schemaLocation</code>
+ and <code>xsi::noNamespaceSchemaLocation</code> attributes
+ in instance documents. The interface of the <code>properties</code>
+ class is presented below:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class properties
+{
+public:
+ void
+ schema_location (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; namespace_,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; location);
+ void
+ no_namespace_schema_location (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; location);
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>Note that all locations are relative to an instance document unless
+ they are URIs. For example, if you want to use a local file as your
+ schema, then you will need to pass
+ <code>file:///absolute/path/to/your/schema</code> as the location
+ argument.
+ </p>
+
+ <h2><a name="3.3">3.3 Error Handling</a></h2>
+
+ <p>As discussed in <a href="#2.2">Section 2.2, "Error Handling"</a>,
+ the mapping uses the C++ exception handling mechanism as its primary
+ way of reporting error conditions. However, to handle recoverable
+ parsing and validation errors and warnings, a callback interface maybe
+ preferred by the application.</p>
+
+ <p>To better understand error handling and reporting strategies employed
+ by the parsing functions, it is useful to know that the
+ transformation of an XML instance document to a statically-typed
+ tree happens in two stages. The first stage, performed by Xerces-C++,
+ consists of parsing an XML document into a DOM instance. For short,
+ we will call this stage the XML-DOM stage. Validation, if not disabled,
+ happens during this stage. The second stage,
+ performed by the generated parsers, consist of parsing the DOM
+ instance into the statically-typed tree. We will call this stage
+ the DOM-Tree stage. Additional checks are performed during this
+ stage in order to prevent construction of inconsistent tree which
+ could otherwise happen when validation is disabled, for example.</p>
+
+ <p>All parsing functions except the one that operates on a DOM instance
+ come in overloaded triples. The first function in such a triple
+ reports error conditions exclusively by throwing exceptions. It
+ accumulates all the parsing and validation errors of the XML-DOM
+ stage and throws them in a single instance of the
+ <code>xml_schema::parsing</code> exception (described below).
+ The second and the third functions in the triple use callback
+ interfaces to report parsing and validation errors and warnings.
+ The two callback interfaces are <code>xml_schema::error_handler</code>
+ and <code>xercesc::DOMErrorHandler</code>. For more information
+ on the <code>xercesc::DOMErrorHandler</code> interface refer to
+ the Xerces-C++ documentation. The <code>xml_schema::error_handler</code>
+ interface is presented below:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+class error_handler
+{
+public:
+ struct severity
+ {
+ enum value
+ {
+ warning,
+ error,
+ fatal
+ };
+ };
+
+ virtual bool
+ handle (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; id,
+ unsigned long line,
+ unsigned long column,
+ severity,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; message) = 0;
+
+ virtual
+ ~error_handler ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>id</code> argument of the <code>error_handler::handle</code>
+ function identifies the resource being parsed (e.g., a file name or
+ URI).
+ </p>
+
+ <p>By returning <code>true</code> from the <code>handle</code> function
+ you instruct the parser to recover and continue parsing. Returning
+ <code>false</code> results in termination of the parsing process.
+ An error with the <code>fatal</code> severity level results in
+ termination of the parsing process no matter what is returned from
+ the <code>handle</code> function. It is safe to throw an exception
+ from the <code>handle</code> function.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The DOM-Tree stage reports error conditions exclusively by throwing
+ exceptions. Individual exceptions thrown by the parsing functions
+ are described in the following sub-sections.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="3.3.1">3.3.1 <code>xml_schema::parsing</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct severity
+{
+ enum value
+ {
+ warning,
+ error
+ };
+
+ severity (value);
+ operator value () const;
+};
+
+struct error
+{
+ error (severity,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; id,
+ unsigned long line,
+ unsigned long column,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; message);
+
+ severity
+ severity () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ id () const;
+
+ unsigned long
+ line () const;
+
+ unsigned long
+ column () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ message () const;
+};
+
+std::basic_ostream&lt;C>&amp;
+operator&lt;&lt; (std::basic_ostream&lt;C>&amp;, const error&amp;);
+
+struct diagnostics: std::vector&lt;error>
+{
+};
+
+std::basic_ostream&lt;C>&amp;
+operator&lt;&lt; (std::basic_ostream&lt;C>&amp;, const diagnostics&amp;);
+
+struct parsing: virtual exception
+{
+ parsing ();
+ parsing (const diagnostics&amp;);
+
+ const diagnostics&amp;
+ diagnostics () const;
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::parsing</code> exception is thrown if there
+ were parsing or validation errors reported during the XML-DOM stage.
+ If no callback interface was provided to the parsing function, the
+ exception contains a list of errors and warnings accessible using
+ the <code>diagnostics</code> function. The usual conditions when
+ this exception is thrown include malformed XML instances and, if
+ validation is turned on, invalid instance documents.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="3.3.2">3.3.2 <code>xml_schema::expected_element</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct expected_element: virtual exception
+{
+ expected_element (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; namespace_);
+
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ name () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ namespace_ () const;
+
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::expected_element</code> exception is thrown
+ when an expected element is not encountered by the DOM-Tree stage.
+ The name and namespace of the expected element can be obtained using
+ the <code>name</code> and <code>namespace_</code> functions respectively.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="3.3.3">3.3.3 <code>xml_schema::unexpected_element</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct unexpected_element: virtual exception
+{
+ unexpected_element (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; encountered_name,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; encountered_namespace,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; expected_name,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; expected_namespace)
+
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ encountered_name () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ encountered_namespace () const;
+
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ expected_name () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ expected_namespace () const;
+
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::unexpected_element</code> exception is thrown
+ when an unexpected element is encountered by the DOM-Tree stage.
+ The name and namespace of the encountered element can be obtained
+ using the <code>encountered_name</code> and
+ <code>encountered_namespace</code> functions respectively. If an
+ element was expected instead of the encountered one, its name
+ and namespace can be obtained using the <code>expected_name</code> and
+ <code>expected_namespace</code> functions respectively. Otherwise
+ these functions return empty strings.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="3.3.4">3.3.4 <code>xml_schema::expected_attribute</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct expected_attribute: virtual exception
+{
+ expected_attribute (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; namespace_);
+
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ name () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ namespace_ () const;
+
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::expected_attribute</code> exception is thrown
+ when an expected attribute is not encountered by the DOM-Tree stage.
+ The name and namespace of the expected attribute can be obtained using
+ the <code>name</code> and <code>namespace_</code> functions respectively.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="3.3.5">3.3.5 <code>xml_schema::unexpected_enumerator</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct unexpected_enumerator: virtual exception
+{
+ unexpected_enumerator (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; enumerator);
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ enumerator () const;
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::unexpected_enumerator</code> exception is thrown
+ when an unexpected enumerator is encountered by the DOM-Tree stage.
+ The enumerator can be obtained using the <code>enumerator</code>
+ functions.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="3.3.6">3.3.6 <code>xml_schema::expected_text_content</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct expected_text_content: virtual exception
+{
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::expected_text_content</code> exception is thrown
+ when a content other than text is encountered and the text content was
+ expected by the DOM-Tree stage.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="3.3.7">3.3.7 <code>xml_schema::no_type_info</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct no_type_info: virtual exception
+{
+ no_type_info (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; type_name,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; type_namespace);
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ type_name () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ type_namespace () const;
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::no_type_info</code> exception is thrown
+ when there is no type information associated with a type specified
+ by the <code>xsi:type</code> attribute. This exception is thrown
+ by the DOM-Tree stage. The name and namespace of the type in question
+ can be obtained using the <code>type_name</code> and
+ <code>type_namespace</code> functions respectively. Usually, catching
+ this exception means that you haven't linked the code generated
+ from the schema defining the type in question with your application
+ or this schema has been compiled without the
+ <code>--generate-polymorphic</code> option.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="3.3.8">3.3.8 <code>xml_schema::not_derived</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct not_derived: virtual exception
+{
+ not_derived (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; base_type_name,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; base_type_namespace,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; derived_type_name,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; derived_type_namespace);
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ base_type_name () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ base_type_namespace () const;
+
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ derived_type_name () const;
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ derived_type_namespace () const;
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::not_derived</code> exception is thrown
+ when a type specified by the <code>xsi:type</code> attribute is
+ not derived from the expected base type. This exception is thrown
+ by the DOM-Tree stage. The name and namespace of the expected
+ base type can be obtained using the <code>base_type_name</code> and
+ <code>base_type_namespace</code> functions respectively. The name
+ and namespace of the offending type can be obtained using the
+ <code>derived_type_name</code> and
+ <code>derived_type_namespace</code> functions respectively.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="3.3.9">3.3.9 <code>xml_schema::no_prefix_mapping</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct no_prefix_mapping: virtual exception
+{
+ no_prefix_mapping (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; prefix);
+
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp;
+ prefix () const;
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::no_prefix_mapping</code> exception is thrown
+ during the DOM-Tree stage if a namespace prefix is encountered for
+ which a prefix-namespace mapping hasn't been provided. The namespace
+ prefix in question can be obtained using the <code>prefix</code>
+ function.
+ </p>
+
+ <h2><a name="3.4">3.4 Reading from a Local File or URI</a></h2>
+
+ <p>Using a local file or URI is the simplest way to parse an XML instance.
+ For example:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+using std::auto_ptr;
+
+auto_ptr&lt;type> r1 (name ("test.xml"));
+auto_ptr&lt;type> r2 (name ("http://www.codesynthesis.com/test.xml"));
+ </pre>
+
+ <h2><a name="3.5">3.5 Reading from <code>std::istream</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>When using an <code>std::istream</code> instance, you may also
+ pass an optional resource id. This id is used to identify the
+ resource (for example in error messages) as well as to resolve
+ relative paths. For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+using std::auto_ptr;
+
+{
+ std::ifstream ifs ("test.xml");
+ auto_ptr&lt;type> r (name (ifs, "test.xml"));
+}
+
+{
+ std::string str ("..."); // Some XML fragment.
+ std::istringstream iss (str);
+ auto_ptr&lt;type> r (name (iss));
+}
+ </pre>
+
+ <h2><a name="3.6">3.6 Reading from <code>xercesc::InputSource</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>Reading from a <code>xercesc::InputSource</code> instance
+ is similar to the <code>std::istream</code> case except
+ the resource id is maintained by the <code>InputSource</code>
+ object. For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+xercesc::StdInInputSource is;
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type> r (name (is));
+ </pre>
+
+ <h2><a name="3.7">3.7 Reading from DOM</a></h2>
+
+ <p>Reading from a <code>xercesc::DOMDocument</code> instance allows
+ you to setup a custom XML-DOM stage. Things like DOM
+ parser reuse, schema pre-parsing, and schema caching can be achieved
+ with this approach. For more information on how to obtain DOM
+ representation from an XML instance refer to the Xerces-C++
+ documentation. In addition, the
+ <a href="http://wiki.codesynthesis.com/Tree/FAQ">C++/Tree Mapping
+ FAQ</a> shows how to parse an XML instance to a Xerces-C++
+ DOM document using the XSD runtime utilities.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The last parsing function is useful when you would like to perform
+ your own XML-to-DOM parsing and associate the resulting DOM document
+ with the object model nodes. If parsing is successeful, the
+ automatic <code>DOMDocument</code> pointer is reset and the
+ resulting object model assumes ownership of the DOM document
+ passed. For example:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+xml_schema::dom::auto_ptr&lt;xercesc::DOMDocument> doc = ...
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type> r (
+ name (doc, xml_schema::flags::keep_dom | xml_schema::flags::own_dom));
+
+// At this point doc is reset to 0.
+ </pre>
+
+
+
+ <h1><a name="4">4 Serialization</a></h1>
+
+ <p>This chapter covers various aspects of serializing a
+ tree-like object model to DOM or XML.
+ In this regard, serialization is complimentary to the reverse
+ process of parsing a DOM or XML instance into an object model
+ which is discussed in <a href="#3">Chapter 3,
+ "Parsing"</a>. Note that the generation of the serialization code
+ is optional and should be explicitly requested with the
+ <code>--generate-serialization</code> option. See the
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
+ Compiler Command Line Manual</a> for more information.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>Each global XML Schema element in the form:
+ </p>
+
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;xsd:element name="name" type="type"/>
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>is mapped to 8 overloaded C++ functions in the form:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+// Serialize to std::ostream.
+//
+void
+name (std::ostream&amp;,
+ const type&amp;,
+ const xml_schema::namespace_fomap&amp; =
+ xml_schema::namespace_infomap (),
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; encoding = "UTF-8",
+ xml_schema::flags = 0);
+
+void
+name (std::ostream&amp;,
+ const type&amp;,
+ xml_schema::error_handler&amp;,
+ const xml_schema::namespace_infomap&amp; =
+ xml_schema::namespace_infomap (),
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; encoding = "UTF-8",
+ xml_schema::flags = 0);
+
+void
+name (std::ostream&amp;,
+ const type&amp;,
+ xercesc::DOMErrorHandler&amp;,
+ const xml_schema::namespace_infomap&amp; =
+ xml_schema::namespace_infomap (),
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; encoding = "UTF-8",
+ xml_schema::flags = 0);
+
+
+// Serialize to XMLFormatTarget.
+//
+void
+name (xercesc::XMLFormatTarget&amp;,
+ const type&amp;,
+ const xml_schema::namespace_infomap&amp; =
+ xml_schema::namespace_infomap (),
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; encoding = "UTF-8",
+ xml_schema::flags = 0);
+
+void
+name (xercesc::XMLFormatTarget&amp;,
+ const type&amp;,
+ xml_schema::error_handler&amp;,
+ const xml_schema::namespace_infomap&amp; =
+ xml_schema::namespace_infomap (),
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; encoding = "UTF-8",
+ xml_schema::flags = 0);
+
+void
+name (xercesc::XMLFormatTarget&amp;,
+ const type&amp;,
+ xercesc::DOMErrorHandler&amp;,
+ const xml_schema::namespace_infomap&amp; =
+ xml_schema::namespace_infomap (),
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; encoding = "UTF-8",
+ xml_schema::flags = 0);
+
+
+// Serialize to DOM.
+//
+xml_schema::dom::auto_ptr&lt;xercesc::DOMDocument>
+name (const type&amp;,
+ const xml_schema::namespace_infomap&amp;
+ xml_schema::namespace_infomap (),
+ xml_schema::flags = 0);
+
+void
+name (xercesc::DOMDocument&amp;,
+ const type&amp;,
+ xml_schema::flags = 0);
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>You can choose between writing XML to <code>std::ostream</code> or
+ <code>xercesc::XMLFormatTarget</code> and creating a DOM instance
+ in the form of <code>xercesc::DOMDocument</code>. Serialization
+ to <code>ostream</code> or <code>XMLFormatTarget</code> requires a
+ considerably less work while serialization to DOM provides
+ for greater flexibility. Each of these serialization functions
+ is discussed in more detail in the following sections.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="4.1">4.1 Initializing the Xerces-C++ Runtime</a></h2>
+
+ <p>Some serialization functions expect you to initialize the Xerces-C++
+ runtime while others initialize and terminate it as part of their
+ work. The general rule is as follows: if a function has any arguments
+ or return a value that is an instance of a Xerces-C++ type, then
+ this function expects you to initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime.
+ Otherwise, the function initializes and terminates the runtime for
+ you. Note that it is legal to have nested calls to the Xerces-C++
+ initialize and terminate functions as long as the calls are balanced.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>You can instruct serialization functions that initialize and terminate
+ the runtime not to do so by passing the
+ <code>xml_schema::flags::dont_initialize</code> flag (see
+ <a href="#4.3">Section 4.3, "Flags"</a>).
+ </p>
+
+ <h2><a name="4.2">4.2 Namespace Infomap and Character Encoding</a></h2>
+
+ <p>When a document being serialized uses XML namespaces, custom
+ prefix-namespace associations can to be established. If custom
+ prefix-namespace mapping is not provided then generic prefixes
+ (<code>p1</code>, <code>p2</code>, etc) are automatically assigned
+ to namespaces as needed. Also, if
+ you would like the resulting instance document to contain the
+ <code>schemaLocation</code> or <code>noNamespaceSchemaLocation</code>
+ attributes, you will need to provide namespace-schema associations.
+ The <code>xml_schema::namespace_infomap</code> class is used
+ to capture this information:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct namespace_info
+{
+ namespace_info ();
+ namespace_info (const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; name,
+ const std::basic_string&lt;C>&amp; schema);
+
+ std::basic_string&lt;C> name;
+ std::basic_string&lt;C> schema;
+};
+
+// Map of namespace prefix to namespace_info.
+//
+struct namespace_infomap: public std::map&lt;std::basic_string&lt;C>,
+ namespace_info>
+{
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>Consider the following associations as an example:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
+
+map["t"].name = "http://www.codesynthesis.com/test";
+map["t"].schema = "test.xsd";
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>This map, if passed to one of the serialization functions,
+ could result in the following XML fragment:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;?xml version="1.0" ?>
+&lt;t:name xmlns:t="http://www.codesynthesis.com/test"
+ xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
+ xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.codesynthesis.com/test test.xsd">
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>As you can see, the serialization function automatically added namespace
+ mapping for the <code>xsi</code> prefix. You can change this by
+ providing your own prefix:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
+
+map["xsn"].name = "http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance";
+
+map["t"].name = "http://www.codesynthesis.com/test";
+map["t"].schema = "test.xsd";
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>This could result in the following XML fragment:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;?xml version="1.0" ?>
+&lt;t:name xmlns:t="http://www.codesynthesis.com/test"
+ xmlns:xsn="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
+ xsn:schemaLocation="http://www.codesynthesis.com/test test.xsd">
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>To specify the location of a schema without a namespace you can use
+ an empty prefix as in the example below: </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
+
+map[""].schema = "test.xsd";
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>This would result in the following XML fragment:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;?xml version="1.0" ?>
+&lt;name xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
+ xsi:noNamespaceSchemaLocation="test.xsd">
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>To make a particular namespace default you can use an empty
+ prefix, for example:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
+
+map[""].name = "http://www.codesynthesis.com/test";
+map[""].schema = "test.xsd";
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>This could result in the following XML fragment:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;?xml version="1.0" ?>
+&lt;name xmlns="http://www.codesynthesis.com/test"
+ xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"
+ xsi:schemaLocation="http://www.codesynthesis.com/test test.xsd">
+ </pre>
+
+
+ <p>Another bit of information that you can pass to the serialization
+ functions is the character encoding method that you would like to use.
+ Common values for this argument are <code>"US-ASCII"</code>,
+ <code>"ISO8859-1"</code>, <code>"UTF-8"</code>,
+ <code>"UTF-16BE"</code>, <code>"UTF-16LE"</code>,
+ <code>"UCS-4BE"</code>, and <code>"UCS-4LE"</code>. The default
+ encoding is <code>"UTF-8"</code>. For more information on
+ encoding methods see the
+ "<a href="http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Character_code">Character
+ Encoding</a>" article from Wikipedia.
+ </p>
+
+ <h2><a name="4.3">4.3 Flags</a></h2>
+
+ <p>Serialization flags are the last argument of every serialization
+ function. They allow you to fine-tune the process of serialization.
+ The flags argument is optional.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <p>The following flags are recognized by the serialization
+ functions:</p>
+
+ <dl>
+ <dt><code>xml_schema::flags::dont_initialize</code></dt>
+ <dd>Do not initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime.</dd>
+
+ <dt><code>xml_schema::flags::dont_pretty_print</code></dt>
+ <dd>Do not add extra spaces or new lines that make the resulting XML
+ slightly bigger but easier to read.</dd>
+
+ <dt><code>xml_schema::flags::no_xml_declaration</code></dt>
+ <dd>Do not write XML declaration (&lt;?xml ... ?>).</dd>
+ </dl>
+
+ <p>You can pass several flags by combining them using the bit-wise OR
+ operator. For example:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type> r = ...
+std::ofstream ofs ("test.xml");
+xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
+name (ofs,
+ *r,
+ map,
+ "UTF-8",
+ xml_schema::flags::no_xml_declaration |
+ xml_schema::flags::dont_pretty_print);
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>For more information on the Xerces-C++ runtime initialization
+ refer to <a href="#4.1">Section 4.1, "Initializing the Xerces-C++
+ Runtime"</a>.
+ </p>
+
+ <h2><a name="4.4">4.4 Error Handling</a></h2>
+
+ <p>As with the parsing functions (see <a href="#3.3">Section 3.3,
+ "Error Handling"</a>), to better understand error handling and
+ reporting strategies employed by the serialization functions, it
+ is useful to know that the transformation of a statically-typed
+ tree to an XML instance document happens in two stages. The first
+ stage, performed by the generated code, consist of building a DOM
+ instance from the statically-typed tree . For short, we will call
+ this stage the Tree-DOM stage. The second stage, performed by
+ Xerces-C++, consists of serializing the DOM instance into the XML
+ document. We will call this stage the DOM-XML stage.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>All serialization functions except the two that serialize into
+ a DOM instance come in overloaded triples. The first function
+ in such a triple reports error conditions exclusively by throwing
+ exceptions. It accumulates all the serialization errors of the
+ DOM-XML stage and throws them in a single instance of the
+ <code>xml_schema::serialization</code> exception (described below).
+ The second and the third functions in the triple use callback
+ interfaces to report serialization errors and warnings. The two
+ callback interfaces are <code>xml_schema::error_handler</code> and
+ <code>xercesc::DOMErrorHandler</code>. The
+ <code>xml_schema::error_handler</code> interface is described in
+ <a href="#3.3">Section 3.3, "Error Handling"</a>. For more information
+ on the <code>xercesc::DOMErrorHandler</code> interface refer to the
+ Xerces-C++ documentation.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>The Tree-DOM stage reports error conditions exclusively by throwing
+ exceptions. Individual exceptions thrown by the serialization functions
+ are described in the following sub-sections.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="4.4.1">4.4.1 <code>xml_schema::serialization</code></a></h3>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+struct serialization: virtual exception
+{
+ serialization ();
+ serialization (const diagnostics&amp;);
+
+ const diagnostics&amp;
+ diagnostics () const;
+
+ virtual const char*
+ what () const throw ();
+};
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::diagnostics</code> class is described in
+ <a href="#3.3.1">Section 3.3.1, "<code>xml_schema::parsing</code>"</a>.
+ The <code>xml_schema::serialization</code> exception is thrown if
+ there were serialization errors reported during the DOM-XML stage.
+ If no callback interface was provided to the serialization function,
+ the exception contains a list of errors and warnings accessible using
+ the <code>diagnostics</code> function.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h3><a name="4.4.2">4.4.2 <code>xml_schema::unexpected_element</code></a></h3>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::unexpected_element</code> exception is
+ described in <a href="#3.3.3">Section 3.3.3,
+ "<code>xml_schema::unexpected_element</code>"</a>. It is thrown
+ by the serialization functions during the Tree-DOM stage if the
+ root element name of the provided DOM instance does not match with
+ the name of the element this serialization function is for.
+ </p>
+
+ <h3><a name="4.4.3">4.4.3 <code>xml_schema::no_type_info</code></a></h3>
+
+ <p>The <code>xml_schema::no_type_info</code> exception is
+ described in <a href="#3.3.7">Section 3.3.7,
+ "<code>xml_schema::no_type_info</code>"</a>. It is thrown
+ by the serialization functions during the Tree-DOM stage when there
+ is no type information associated with a dynamic type of an
+ element. Usually, catching this exception means that you haven't
+ linked the code generated from the schema defining the type in
+ question with your application or this schema has been compiled
+ without the <code>--generate-polymorphic</code> option.
+ </p>
+
+ <h2><a name="4.5">4.5 Serializing to <code>std::ostream</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>In order to serialize to <code>std::ostream</code> you will need
+ an object model, an output stream and, optionally, a namespace
+ infomap. For instance:</p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+// Obtain the object model.
+//
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type> r = ...
+
+// Prepare namespace mapping and schema location information.
+//
+xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
+
+map["t"].name = "http://www.codesynthesis.com/test";
+map["t"].schema = "test.xsd";
+
+// Write it out.
+//
+name (std::cout, *r, map);
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>Note that the output stream is treated as a binary stream. This
+ becomes important when you use a character encoding that is wider
+ than 8-bit <code>char</code>, for instance UTF-16 or UCS-4. For
+ example, things will most likely break if you try to serialize
+ to <code>std::ostringstream</code> with UTF-16 or UCS-4 as an
+ encoding. This is due to the special value,
+ <code>'\0'</code>, that will most likely occur as part of such
+ serialization and it won't have the special meaning assumed by
+ <code>std::ostringstream</code>.
+ </p>
+
+
+ <h2><a name="4.6">4.6 Serializing to <code>xercesc::XMLFormatTarget</code></a></h2>
+
+ <p>Serializing to an <code>xercesc::XMLFormatTarget</code> instance
+ is similar the <code>std::ostream</code> case. For instance:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+using std::auto_ptr;
+
+// Obtain the object model.
+//
+auto_ptr&lt;type> r = ...
+
+// Prepare namespace mapping and schema location information.
+//
+xml_schema::namespace_infomap map;
+
+map["t"].name = "http://www.codesynthesis.com/test";
+map["t"].schema = "test.xsd";
+
+using namespace xercesc;
+
+XMLPlatformUtils::Initialize ();
+
+{
+ // Choose a target.
+ //
+ auto_ptr&lt;XMLFormatTarget> ft;
+
+ if (argc != 2)
+ {
+ ft = auto_ptr&lt;XMLFormatTarget> (new StdOutFormatTarget ());
+ }
+ else
+ {
+ ft = auto_ptr&lt;XMLFormatTarget> (
+ new LocalFileFormatTarget (argv[1]));
+ }
+
+ // Write it out.
+ //
+ name (*ft, *r, map);
+}
+
+XMLPlatformUtils::Terminate ();
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>Note that we had to initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime before we
+ could call this serialization function.</p>
+
+ <h2><a name="4.7">4.7 Serializing to DOM</a></h2>
+
+ <p>The mapping provides two overloaded functions that implement
+ serialization to a DOM instance. The first creates a DOM instance
+ for you and the second serializes to an existing DOM instance.
+ While serializing to a new DOM instance is similar to serializing
+ to <code>std::ostream</code> or <code>xercesc::XMLFormatTarget</code>,
+ serializing to an existing DOM instance requires quite a bit of work
+ from your side. You will need to set all the custom namespace mapping
+ attributes as well as the <code>schemaLocation</code> and/or
+ <code>noNamespaceSchemaLocation</code> attributes. The following
+ listing should give you an idea about what needs to be done:
+ </p>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+// Obtain the object model.
+//
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type> r = ...
+
+using namespace xercesc;
+
+XMLPlatformUtils::Initialize ();
+
+{
+ // Create a DOM instance. Set custom namespace mapping and schema
+ // location attributes.
+ //
+ DOMDocument&amp; doc = ...
+
+ // Serialize to DOM.
+ //
+ name (doc, *r);
+
+ // Serialize the DOM document to XML.
+ //
+ ...
+}
+
+XMLPlatformUtils::Terminate ();
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>For more information on how to create and serialize a DOM instance
+ refer to the Xerces-C++ documentation. In addition, the
+ <a href="http://wiki.codesynthesis.com/Tree/FAQ">C++/Tree Mapping
+ FAQ</a> shows how to implement these operations using the XSD
+ runtime utilities.
+ </p>
+
+ <h1><a name="5">5 Additional Functionality</a></h1>
+
+ <p>The C++/Tree mapping provides a number of optional features
+ that can be useful in certain situations. They are described
+ in the following sections.</p>
+
+ <h2><a name="5.1">5.1 DOM Association</a></h2>
+
+ <p>Normally, after parsing is complete, the DOM document which
+ was used to extract the data is discarded. However, the parsing
+ functions can be instructed to preserve the DOM document
+ and create an association between the DOM nodes and object model
+ nodes. When there is an association between the DOM and
+ object model nodes, you can obtain the corresponding DOM element
+ or attribute node from an object model node as well as perform
+ the reverse transition: obtain the corresponding object model
+ from a DOM element or attribute node.</p>
+
+ <p>Maintaining DOM association is normally useful when the application
+ needs access to XML constructs that are not preserved in the
+ object model, for example, text in the mixed content model.
+ Another useful aspect of DOM association is the ability of the
+ application to navigate the document tree using the generic DOM
+ interface (for example, with the help of an XPath processor)
+ and then move back to the statically-typed object model. Note
+ also that while you can change the underlying DOM document,
+ these changes are not reflected in the object model and will
+ be ignored during serialization. If you need to not only access
+ but also modify some aspects of XML that are not preserved in
+ the object model, then type customization with custom parsing
+ constructs and serialization operators should be used instead.</p>
+
+ <p>To request DOM association you will need to pass the
+ <code>xml_schema::flags::keep_dom</code> flag to one of the
+ parsing functions (see <a href="#3.2">Section 3.2,
+ "Flags and Properties"</a> for more information). In this case the
+ DOM document is retained and will be released when the object model
+ is deleted. Note that since DOM nodes "out-live" the parsing function
+ call, you need to initialize the Xerces-C++ runtime before calling
+ one of the parsing functions with the <code>keep_dom</code> flag and
+ terminate it after the object model is destroyed (see
+ <a href="#3.1">Section 3.1, "Initializing the Xerces-C++ Runtime"</a>).
+ The DOM association is also maintained in complete copies of the
+ object model (that is, the DOM document is cloned and associations
+ are reestablished).</p>
+
+ <p>To obtain the corresponding DOM node from an object model node
+ you will need to call the <code>_node</code> accessor function
+ which returns a pointer to <code>DOMNode</code>. You can then query
+ this DOM node's type and cast it to either <code>DOMAttr*</code>
+ or <code>DOMElement*</code>. To obtain the corresponding object
+ model node from a DOM node, the DOM user data API is used. The
+ <code>xml_schema::dom::tree_node_key</code> variable contains
+ the key for object model nodes. The following schema and code
+ fragment show how to navigate from DOM to object model nodes
+ and in the opposite direction:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="a" type="string"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+
+&lt;element name="root" type="object"/>
+ </pre>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+using namespace xercesc;
+
+XMLPlatformUtils::Initialize ();
+
+{
+ // Parse XML to object model.
+ //
+ std::auto_ptr&lt;type> r = root (
+ "root.xml",
+ xml_schema::flags::keep_dom |
+ xml_schema::flags::dont_initialize);
+
+ DOMNode* n = root->_node ();
+ assert (n->getNodeType () != DOMNode::ELEMENT_NODE);
+ DOMElement* re = static_cast&lt;DOMElement*> (n);
+
+ // Get the 'a' element. Note that it is not necessarily the
+ // first child node of 'root' since there could be whitespace
+ // nodes before it.
+ //
+ DOMElement* ae;
+
+ for (n = re->getFirstChild (); n != 0; n = n->getNextSibling ())
+ {
+ if (n->getNodeType () == DOMNode::ELEMENT_NODE)
+ {
+ ae = static_cast&lt;DOMElement*> (n);
+ break;
+ }
+ }
+
+ // Get from the 'a' DOM element to xml_schema::string object model
+ // node.
+ //
+ xml_schema::type&amp; t (
+ *reinterpret_cast&lt;xml_schema::type*> (
+ ae->getUserData (xml_schema::dom::tree_node_key)));
+
+ xml_schema::string&amp; a (dynamic_cast&lt;xml_schema::string&amp;> (t));
+}
+
+XMLPlatformUtils::Terminate ();
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The 'mixed' example which can be found in the XSD distribution
+ shows how to handle the mixed content using DOM association.</p>
+
+ <h2><a name="5.2">5.2 Binary Serialization</a></h2>
+
+ <p>Besides reading from and writing to XML, the C++/Tree mapping
+ also allows you to save the object model to and load it from a
+ number of predefined as well as custom data representation
+ formats. The predefined binary formats are CDR (Common Data
+ Representation) and XDR (eXternal Data Representation). A
+ custom format can easily be supported by providing
+ insertion and extraction operators for basic types.</p>
+
+ <p>Binary serialization saves only the data without any meta
+ information or markup. As a result, saving to and loading
+ from a binary representation can be an order of magnitude
+ faster than parsing and serializing the same data in XML.
+ Furthermore, the resulting representation is normally several
+ times smaller than the equivalent XML representation. These
+ properties make binary serialization ideal for internal data
+ exchange and storage. A typical application that uses this
+ facility stores the data and communicates within the
+ system using a binary format and reads/writes the data
+ in XML when communicating with the outside world.</p>
+
+ <p>In order to request the generation of insertion operators and
+ extraction constructors for a specific predefined or custom
+ data representation stream, you will need to use the
+ <code>--generate-insertion</code> and <code>--generate-extraction</code>
+ compiler options. See the
+ <a href="http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/xsd.xhtml">XSD
+ Compiler Command Line Manual</a> for more information.</p>
+
+ <p>Once the insertion operators and extraction constructors are
+ generated, you can use the <code>xml_schema::istream</code>
+ and <code>xml_schema::ostream</code> wrapper stream templates
+ to save the object model to and load it from a specific format.
+ The following code fragment shows how to do this using ACE
+ (Adaptive Communication Environment) CDR streams as an example:</p>
+
+ <pre class="xml">
+&lt;complexType name="object">
+ &lt;sequence>
+ &lt;element name="a" type="string"/>
+ &lt;element name="b" type="int"/>
+ &lt;/sequence>
+&lt;/complexType>
+
+&lt;element name="root" type="object"/>
+ </pre>
+
+ <pre class="c++">
+// Parse XML to object model.
+//
+std::auto_ptr&lt;type> r = root ("root.xml");
+
+// Save to a CDR stream.
+//
+ACE_OutputCDR ace_ocdr;
+xml_schema::ostream&lt;ACE_OutputCDR> ocdr (ace_ocdr);
+
+ocdr &lt;&lt; *r;
+
+// Load from a CDR stream.
+//
+ACE_InputCDR ace_icdr (buf, size);
+xml_schema::istream&lt;ACE_InputCDR> icdr (ace_icdr);
+
+std::auto_ptr&lt;object> copy (new object (icdr));
+
+// Serialize to XML.
+//
+root (std::cout, *copy);
+ </pre>
+
+ <p>The XSD distribution contains a number of examples that
+ show how to save the object model to and load it from
+ CDR, XDR, and a custom format.</p>
+
+ <!-- Appendix A -->
+
+
+ <h1><a name="A">Appendix A &mdash; Default and Fixed Values</a></h1>
+
+ <p>The following table summarizes the effect of default and fixed
+ values (specified with the <code>default</code> and <code>fixed</code>
+ attributes, respectively) on attribute and element values. The
+ <code>default</code> and <code>fixed</code> attributes are mutually
+ exclusive. It is also worthwhile to note that the fixed value semantics
+ is a superset of the default value semantics.
+ </p>
+
+ <!-- border="1" is necessary for html2ps -->
+ <table id="default-fixed" border="1">
+ <tr>
+ <th></th>
+ <th></th>
+ <th colspan="2">default</th>
+ <th colspan="2">fixed</th>
+ </tr>
+
+ <!-- element -->
+
+ <tr>
+ <th rowspan="4">element</th>
+ <th rowspan="2">not present</th>
+ <th>optional</th>
+ <th>required</th>
+ <th>optional</th>
+ <th>required</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>not present</td>
+ <td>invalid instance</td>
+ <td>not present</td>
+ <td>invalid instance</td>
+ </tr>
+
+
+ <tr>
+ <th>empty</th>
+ <td colspan="2">default value is used</td>
+ <td colspan="2">fixed value is used</td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th>value</th>
+ <td colspan="2">value is used</td>
+ <td colspan="2">value is used provided it's the same as fixed</td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <!-- attribute -->
+
+ <!-- element -->
+
+ <tr>
+ <th rowspan="4">attribute</th>
+ <th rowspan="2">not present</th>
+ <th>optional</th>
+ <th>required</th>
+ <th>optional</th>
+ <th>required</th>
+ </tr>
+ <tr>
+ <td>default value is used</td>
+ <td>invalid schema</td>
+ <td>fixed value is used</td>
+ <td>invalid instance</td>
+ </tr>
+
+
+ <tr>
+ <th>empty</th>
+ <td colspan="2">empty value is used</td>
+ <td colspan="2">empty value is used provided it's the same as fixed</td>
+ </tr>
+
+ <tr>
+ <th>value</th>
+ <td colspan="2">value is used</td>
+ <td colspan="2">value is used provided it's the same as fixed</td>
+ </tr>
+
+ </table>
+
+ </div>
+</div>
+
+
+</body>
+</html>
diff --git a/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/makefile b/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/makefile
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..bfdd6d3
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/makefile
@@ -0,0 +1,12 @@
+.PHONY: all
+all: cxx-tree-manual.ps cxx-tree-manual.pdf
+
+cxx-tree-manual.pdf: cxx-tree-manual.ps
+ ps2pdf14 $<
+
+cxx-tree-manual.ps: index.xhtml manual.html2ps
+ html2ps -f manual.html2ps -o $@ $<
+
+.PHONY: clean
+clean:
+ rm -f cxx-tree-manual.ps cxx-tree-manual.pdf
diff --git a/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/manual.html2ps b/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/manual.html2ps
new file mode 100644
index 0000000..d7477bf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/manual.html2ps
@@ -0,0 +1,66 @@
+@html2ps {
+ option {
+ toc: hb;
+ colour: 1;
+ hyphenate: 1;
+ titlepage: 1;
+ }
+
+ datefmt: "%B %Y";
+
+ titlepage {
+ content: "
+<div align=center>
+ <h1><big>C++/Tree Mapping User Manual</big></h1>
+ <h1>&nbsp;</h1>
+ <h1>&nbsp;</h1>
+ <h1>&nbsp;</h1>
+ <h1>&nbsp;</h1>
+ <h1>&nbsp;</h1>
+ <h1>&nbsp;</h1>
+ <h1>&nbsp;</h1>
+</div>
+ <p>Revision $[revision] &nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; $D</p>
+ <p>Copyright &copy; 2005-2009 CODE SYNTHESIS TOOLS CC</p>
+
+ <p>Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this
+ document under the terms of the
+ <a href='http://www.codesynthesis.com/licenses/fdl-1.2.txt'>GNU Free
+ Documentation License, version 1.2</a>; with no Invariant Sections,
+ no Front-Cover Texts and no Back-Cover Texts.
+ </p>
+
+ <p>This document is available in the following formats:
+ <a href='http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/index.xhtml'>XHTML</a>,
+ <a href='http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/cxx-tree-manual.pdf'>PDF</a>, and
+ <a href='http://www.codesynthesis.com/projects/xsd/documentation/cxx/tree/manual/cxx-tree-manual.ps'>PostScript</a>.</p>";
+ }
+
+ toc {
+ indent: 2em;
+ }
+
+ header {
+ odd-right: $H;
+ even-left: $H;
+ }
+
+ footer {
+ odd-left: $D;
+ odd-center: $T, v$[revision];
+ odd-right: $N;
+
+ even-left: $N;
+ even-center: $T, v$[revision];
+ even-right: $D;
+ }
+}
+
+body {
+ font-size: 12pt;
+ text-align: justify;
+}
+
+pre {
+ font-size: 10pt;
+}